The Capital and the Crisis of Primary Production

- Industrialism and the capitalist mode of production have had a most destructive effect on primary production.

- As everything in society tends more and more to be subjected to the needs of the industrial capitalism, it is no wonder that primary production as well is increasingly being capitalized, mechanized and concentrated.

- Primary production must constantly expand - not in order to feed the hungry masses, but to satisfy the needs of capital.

- The more effectively a farmer is able to produce, the cheaper will his products be. The cheaper the farmer's products get, the more he has to produce in order to maintain his standard of living.

- In order to produce more effectively, the farmer has to invest in machinery, fertilizers, pesticides etc.

- The indispensable technical and chemical requirements for farm production do not come cheap. To pay the costs the farmer is forced to make his production more capital-intensive, which he usually cannot do without getting into debt.

- In order to survive, the farmer is forced to endlessly charge ahead in the ratrace. This is imposed on him by the logic of capital.

- The problems concerning primary production are mainly two: First, the limited demand for its products, second the limited base for production -- neither of these limitations applies for the industrial mode of production.

- The first problem for the farmer is that a human being can only consume a limited amount of food. If the population doesnÕt grow any more and no new markets are opened the growth in the demand for the farmerÕs products will not be sufficient. The farmer will have no choice but to lower his production costs per unit by making his production even more capital-intensive and thus getting even deeper into debt. The farmer is trapped.

- Industrial production will always be able to find new markets by endlessly designing new products or by creating artificial needs through advertisement. Agricultural products , on the other hand, always end up consumed and their consumption per individual cannot be increased in any significant way.

- The second problem a farmer has is that the amount of soil is limited.

- The increasing size of farms doesn't mean that the amount of soil is growing. It only means that there are fewer farmers.

- The industrial-capitalistic system constantly creates new capital: Machinery, buildings, rail ways, dockyards, mines etc.

- In the primary production the most important form of capital cannot grow. The amount of soil and fishing waters remains constant.

- In the primary production only the secondary form of capital can grow. This growth consists in the ability to exploit the primary form of capital even more intensively.

- In the primary production the growth of this secondary form of capital makes the economic situation of the farmer more precaurious and strains the limits for the capacity of nature to satisfy the ever- growing demands on it. Eventually this will be too much for nature to bear. This is the root cause for ecological disaster, because in the end nature was never meant for the mode of production of industrial capitalism.

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