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Auto Union

Auto Union 1934 ("A")

Grand Prix 750 kg
Design:Ferdinand Porsche
Engine:V16 45°, 68 * 75 mm = 4358cc, 2 valves/cyl, Roots supercharger, 295 bhp @ 4500 rpm
Transmission:5 speed gearbox
Chassis:tubular frame
Suspension:front: independent with trailing links, torsion bars, friction dampers
rear: swing axles, transverse leaf springs, friction dampers
Dimensions:wheelbase: 280 cm, track: 139/139 cm, weight: 825 kg dry
Year:1934, cars built: 5

Starting off as the Porsche "P-wagen" the official name of the car was T 22 and it has later been called type A or type 1934.
      The chassis composed of two 75mm diameter chrome nickel molybdenum steel tubes with upswept front ends interlinked ladder fashion by four tubular cross members.
      The independent front suspension consisted of two trailing arms for each wheel, the lower one being connected to a 16mm torsion bar. The torsion bars were set laterally within the front cross tube, connecting to trailing links supporting the hub carriers. The rear suspension consisted of a swing axle with a transverse mounted leaf spring. The steering box was centrally mounted with the steering column being offset 2.5 deg to the right. The 42 cm steering wheel was detatchable. Brakes were drums type Lockheed on all four wheels.
      The V16 engine was of a simple and straightforward design aimed to achieve the greatest possible power and torque per weight rather than per liter. The cylinders were arranged in two banks in a 45° angle. Each cylinder had two valves placed at 90° and a single plug, slightly offline from the center. The 45° concept made it possible to use a single camshaft in the middle of the vee for all 32 valves working straight on the inlet valves and on the exhaust valves with pushrods. Engine featured detachable cylinder heads and wet type cylinder liners.The pistons were light alloy. The one piece crankshaft ran in lead-bronze main bearings. The big ends too were plain. Lubrication was of dry sump type. A single Roots supercharger mounted vertically behind the block was gear driven off the camdrive. It delivered mixture drawn from two Solex carburettors at 1.66 ata boost. The V16 was slow reving but the mid range torque was an impressive 54 *9.81 = 530 Nm at 2700 rpm.
      The gearbox was mounted behind the rear axle, a short shaft passing under the differential connected it with the cluch mounted behind the engine. The main fuel tank was mounted between the driver seat and the engine. The radiator was mounted in the front and included an oil cooler at the bottom. The frame was used to carry water to the radiator. That later proved to be a troublesome feature.
      As a consequence of the mid engine design the driver was placed far forward, his feets being just behind the centre line of the front wheels. The lack of drive shaft made him to sit low. The 170 liter main tank was behind him and a 40 liter reserve tank was over his feet. The refuelling shaft was on the right side. Both tanks were well within the wheelbase and so minimized handling changes during a long race. The fuel capacity was selected to do even the longest GP with just one stop. The duralminum chassis weighed only 45 kg. The cockpit sides were actually of canvas.
      The 58 % weight over the rear axle made the car oversteer. The combination of a low polar moment and the driver far forward made the car swing far from its axle before the driver was able to feel it, demanding very fast reflexes to get the most out of the car.
      The car was ready for tests in November 1933. It made its first public appearance on 6 March 1934 at Avus when Hans Stuck broke three world records.

      There have been lots of speculations about how many cars were built. It seems that the team went through the season with just five cars, three race cars, a T-car and a second reserve, which was later rebuilt to hill climb spec with a small fuel tank. There was also possibly a prototype. So chassis numbers of the race cars should have been 76001-76005 or possibly 76002-76006. The low rev engine made it possible to run it for two races in a row without any major overhaul and during the season the team made full use of the T-car, letting it actually take part in the races whenever possible. One 120 kg "speedlimousine" body existed and one more was built for 1935.
      For 1935 season three cars (76002-76004) were upgraded with higher compression, improved gearbox and improved brakes. However, the old chassis did not allow installation of the new fuel tank. Chassis 76002 took part in Tripoli and 76003 and 76004 were raced as speedlimousines at Avus. The two other cars were meant to be used as spare parts, but see the B-type text. It is not known which car chassis was used for Varzi at Tunis 1935 but it was clearly a rebuilt A-type. After Avus there are no pictures of any cars with the front reserve tank, so it is possible that the old cars later were totally rebuilt with 105 mm chassis tubes.
     


Victories:
1934
1 Felsbergrennen (Mountainclimb)Stuck
1 Kesselbergrennen (Mountainclimb)Stuck
1 Großer Preis von DeutschlandStuck
1 Großer Bergpreis (Moutainclimb)Stuck
1 Großer Preis der SchweizStuck
1 Mt. Ventroux (Mountainclimb)Stuck
1 Masarykuv OkruhStuck
1935
1 Grand Prix de TunisieVarzi


1934 Race number checklist:

 StuckLeiningenMombergerBurggallerSebastian
Avusrennen424446  
Eifelrennen123  
Felsberg*112    
Kesselberg*339    
GP de l'A.C.F.2104  
GERMAN GP1 23 
Klausen*66    
Coppa Acerbo44   32
Schauinsland*243    
Swiss GP624  
ITALIAN GP102820  
Mont Ventoux*101    
SPANISH GP622   
Masaryk Circuit1032  12


Variants:
Auto UnionXAuto Union
Long tailed variant. Closed suspension. Avusrennen.
Auto UnionAuto Union
Early GP car, Eifelrennen. Car had black/white/red flag on left side of tail, swastika in white circle on right side.
Auto Union
Auto UnionAuto UnionAuto Union
Without door, French GP. Car had flag/swastika as in Eifelrennen.
Nose colors: Stuck (red), Leiningen (metal), Momberger (white)
Auto UnionAuto Union
Mountain climb car with fins behind front wheels. Klaußenpaßrennen (Stuck)
Auto UnionAuto Union
Upgraded GP car, with new air intakes & multitude of drilled holes.
German GP, Coppa Acerbo, Swiss GP, practice (Stuck, Momberger), Czech GP? (Sebastian)
Auto UnionAuto Union
With closed in front suspension.
Swiss GP, race (Stuck, Momberger), Italian GP (Stuck, Momberger), Spanish GP (Stuck).
Auto UnionAuto Union
With deep cockpit. Spanish GP (zu Leiningen), Czech GP (Nuvolari, test)
Auto UnionAuto Union
With deep cockpit, closed in front suspension. Czech GP (Stuck)
Auto UnionAuto Union
Late chassis with straight cut side panel and with closed in front suspension.
Swiss GP, race? (zu Leiningen), Italian GP (zu Leiningen)
Auto UnionAuto Union
Late chassis with straight cut side panel.
Swiss GP, practice ? (zu Leiningen), Czech GP (zu Leiningen)
Auto Union
October 1934 Avus speed record car.
Auto UnionAuto Union
Tunis 1935. New high cockpit type. Still with reserve tank. No off-center refuelling shaft anymore.
No small air intakes. New type of exhausts. Closed in front suspension.
Auto Union
Lucca speed record car.
Auto Union
Lucca speed record car, enclosed rear wheels. Auto Union
Speedlimousine, Avusrennen (zu Leiningen, Rosemeyer)





Auto Union

Auto Union 1935 ("B")

Grand Prix 750 kg
Design:Ferdinand Porsche
Engine:V16 45° 68 * 75 mm = 4358 cc 2 valves/cyl, Roots supercharger
V16 45° 72.5 * 75 mm = 4951 cc, 2 valves/cyl, Roots supercharger
V16 45° 72.5 * 85 mm = 5610 cc?, 2 valves/cyl, Roots supercharger, 375 bhp @ 4800 rpm
Transmission:5 speed gearbox
Chassis:tubular frame
Suspension:front: independent with trailing links, torsion bars, friction dampers
rear: longitudal torsion bars in frame side members, friction dampers
Dimensions:wheelbase: 291 cm track: 142/142 cm weight: 805 kg dry
Year:1935, cars built : 4 new + 3 type A rebuilt


For 1935 four new cars were built. Later known as the "B-type" the 1935 cars featured over 50 improvements including new longer 105 mm chassis tubes. The cooling system was totally rebuilt with the frame no longer carrying water to the radiator. The two tanks were replaced with a single 210 liter main tank behind the driver, meant to keep fuel for 320 km. The engine had bigger valves and new cylinders, increasing compression from 7 to 8.95. Also added were an improved brake system, an improved gear box and a new rear axle with torsion bars. At Avus new bigger engines with 72.5 mm bore were introduced. Some books have also mentioned that a 5.6 liter variant was tested at the French GP, but I have been unable to confirm this.
      During the season there were several changes to the cars. The new cooling system heated up the pedals and driver's feet so at the end of the season the tubes were let out on the outside of the car on the right side of the cockpit.

      It's my understanding that for 1935 cars recieved numbers with "1" as fourth digit (76011-76014 or 76012-76015) creating a gap in the numbering system and fooling some historians to believe there had existed a huge number of chassis.
      At the end of the season the team had 7 cars (corresponding to the three "A" + four "B" mentioned earlier) plus a hill climb special. So where did the last one come from? Either a fifth "B" chassis was built during the season or then the fourth "A" was never scrapped as planned. For 1936 four old cars were retained (probably the "B" types), two to be rebuilt as reserve cars and two to hill climb cars.


Victories:
1935
1 Kesselberg (Mountainclimb) Stuck
1 Coppa AcerboVarzi
1 Großer Bergpreis (Mountainclimb) Stuck
1 Gran Premio d'ItaliaStuck
1 Masarykuv OkruhRosemeyer
1 Feldbergrennen (Mountainclimb) Stuck


1935 Race number checklist:

 StuckVarziRosemeyerLeiningenPietsch
Tunis GP 34   
Tripoli GP4824   
Avusrennen1243 
Eifelrennen124 3
GP de l'A.C.F.10812  
Kesselberg*281 23 
GERMAN GP123 4
Coppa Acerbo373930  
SWISS GP1064  
Schauinsland*2752   
Selvio* ?   
ITALIAN GP122230  
SPANISH GP1064  
Masaryk Circuit468 (2)
Feldberg*341    
Felsberg*(288)    


Variants:
Auto UnionAuto Union
High cockpit. Closed in suspension. New exhaust type. Only left side mirror. Avus GP (Stuck). Auto UnionAuto Union
Auto Union
"Pukka" 1935 cars. Assymmetrical with high right cockpit side and low left side.
Mirrors are of a new type. Open suspension. Eifelrennen, French GP.
Auto UnionAuto Union
With air intake in front of the windscreen. Open suspension.
German GP, Italian GP. Rosemeyer red? around radiator at Italian GP.
Auto UnionAuto Union
With air intake in front of the windscreen. Closed in suspension.
Coppa Acerbo. Several variants of windscreens/cockpits were seen during practice
Auto Union
Coppa Acerbo practice, car #37. Note the windscreen and the panel.
Car #30 similar but with longer exhausts.
Auto UnionAuto Union Auto Union
New type with exterior radiator tubes on right side of cockpit.
Open suspension. Spanish and Chech GPs.





Auto Union

Auto Union C

Grand Prix 750 kg
Design:Ferdinand Porsche
Engine:V16 45°, 75 * 85mm = 6005cc, 2 valves/cyl, Roots supercharger, 520 bhp @ 5000 rpm
Transmission:5 speed gearbox, ZF differential
Chassis:tubular frame
Suspension:front: independent with trailing links, torsion bars, friction dampers
rear: longitudal torsion bars in frame side members, friction dampers
Dimensions:wheelbase: 291 cm, track: 142/142 cm, weight: 824 kg dry
Year:1936-37


Victories:
1936
1 La Turbie (Mountainclimb)Stuck
1 Gran Premio di Tripoli Varzi
1 ADAC Eifelrennen Rosemeyer
1 Großer Preis von Deutschland Rosemeyer
1 Coppa Acerbo Rosemeyer
1 Großer Preis der Schweiz Rosemeyer
1 Großer Bergpreis (Mountainclimb) Rosemeyer
1 Gran Premio d'Italia Rosemeyer
1 Feldbergrennen (Mountainclimb) Rosemeyer
1937
1 Grosvenor GP (Handicap)Von Delius
1 ADAC EifelrennenRosemeyer
1 Vanderbilt Cup Rosemeyer
1 Grand Prix de BelgiqueHasse
1 Großer Bergpreis (Mountainclimb) Stuck
1 La Turbie (Mountainclimb)Stuck
1 Coppa AcerboRosemeyer
1 Donington Grand PrixRosemeyer


1936 Race number checklist:

 StuckVarziRosemeyerDeliusHasse
La Turbie*?    
MONACO GP246(3) 
Tripoli GP321046  
Tunis GP426  
Shelsley-Walsh*57    
Penya Rhin GP  212 
Eifelrennen261811 
Hungarian GP121416  
Milan GP 54   
GERMAN GP2 486
Coppa Ciano664854  
Coppa Acerbo(46)625048 
SWISS GP684 2
Schauinsland*  8482 
ITALIAN GP2648 
Feldberg*  6162 


1937 Race number checklist:

 StuckVarziRosemeyerDeliusHasseFagioliMüllerNuvolari
South African GP H  2827    
Grosvenor GP H  1918    
Tripoli GP38 1622612  
Avusrennen  31323433  
Rio de Janeiro GP4       
Eifelrennen  12435 
Milan GP    82   
Vanderbilt Cup  49    
BELGIAN GP8   12(10)14 
GERMAN GP10 428 6 
Schauinsland*111 116     
La Turbie*1       
MONACO GP4 2 6   
Coppa Acerbo4 10  2022 
SWISS GP10 8  4 6
ITALIAN GP161412   18 
Masaryk GP  10   14 
Donington GP  5 6 7 


Variants:

Auto Union
Auto Union
There appear to be two distinct types of cars, this one....

Auto Union
Auto Union
... and this, more common variant. Note the difference in the water pipe trunk.

Auto Union
High cockpit sides, 1937 AVUS.

Auto Union
1937 Vanderbilt Cup.

Auto Union
1936 races up to and
including the Milan GP
Auto Union
Tripoli GP
Auto Union
Hungarian GP
Auto Union
German GP
Coppa Ciano
Auto Union
Coppa Ciano (Rosemeyer)
Coppa Acerbo
Auto Union
Swiss & Italian GPs
Auto Union
Most 1937 races
Auto Union
1937 AVUS
Auto Union
1937 Vanderbilt cup
Czech & Donington GPs
Auto Union
C-type streamliner





Auto Union

Auto Union D

Grand Prix 3 litre
Design:Siebler, Eberan von Eberhorst, Strobel
Engine:1938: V12 60° 65*75 mm = 2986 cc, 2 valves/cyl, Roots supercharger, 420 bhp
1939: Two stage Roots supercharger 485 bhp @ 7000 rpm
Transmission:5 speed gearbox, ZF differential
Chassis:tubular frame
Suspension:front: independent with trailing links, transverse torision bars, hydraulic dampers
rear: De Dion axle, longitudinal torsion bars, friction dampers
Dimensions:wheelbase: 285 cm, track: 139/139 cm, weight: 850 kg dry
Year:1938-39


Victories:
1938
1 La Turbie (Mountainclimb)Stuck
1 Großer Bergpreis (Mountainclimb)Stuck
1 Gran Premio d'ItaliaNuvolari
1 Maloja Pass (Mountainclimb)Stuck
1 Feleac (Mountainclimb)Stuck
1 Donington Grand PrixNuvolari
1939
1 La Turbie (Mountainclimb)Stuck
1 Grand Prix de l'A.C.D.F. Müller
1 Beograd City Park RaceNuvolari


1938 Race number checklist:

 StuckHasseMüllerNuvolariKautz
GP de l'A.C.F. 18(20) 16
GERMAN GP4682 
La Turbie*22    
Coppa Acerbo 443040 
SWISS GP8 462
Großglockner*83    
ITALIAN GP36 202224
Maloja*40    
Feleac*40?    
Schulerau*?    
Donington GP 2143


1939 Race number checklist:

 StuckHasseMüllerNuvolariMeierBigalke
La Turbie*20     
Eifelrennen4862(8)10
Wien*183 182     
BELGIAN GP 4628 
Bucarest GP?     
GP de l'A.C.F.10 12814 
GERMAN GP486210 
Großglockner*126 125   
SWISS GP8246  
Belgrade City Race(8) 84 (4?)


Variants:
Auto Union
D-type streamliner, 1938 French GP practice

Auto Union
Rebuilt C-type
1938 French GP, German GP (Hasse, Müller), Coppa Acerbo (Müller)

Auto Union
1938 D-type

Auto Union
1939 D-type (Eifelrennen)

Auto Union
1939 D-type (Belgian GP)

Auto Union
D-type with 2 stage supercharger,
1939 (French GP onwards).

Auto Union
1938
Auto Union
1938 Italian GP (Nuvolari)
Auto Union
1939




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© 2017 Leif Snellman - Last updated: 23.04.2017