GRAND PRIX WINNERS 1895-1949

History, Grand Prix-, American- & Other Formulae

by Hans Etzrodt


It began with the Paris-Rouen Trial on 22 July 1894, organized by the journalist Pierre Giffard of Le Petit Journal; a judging-panel decided on the winner. At this contest all French motoring pioneers had been present and in November 1895 they formed the Automobile Club de France - ACF -, which thereafter was to govern most major races in France. But six months prior, the first major automobile race, Paris-Bordeaux-Paris, took place with entries divided in two categories: cars with at least four and only two persons. The first prize could only be won by a four-seater. Officially the Peugeot was the fastest four-seater but Levassor's two-seater was first at the finish and was therefore celebrated by the crowd as the winner; officially he received only the second prize. Nevertheless, the crowd knew only the winner Levassor. Consequently, the following year in 1896, the race Paris-Marseille-Paris became the first true race, where the first at the finish was also the victor. The town-to-town races of the pioneering years ended with the tragic 1903 Paris-Madrid race, while the first race on a road circuit was held 1898 at Perigueux, run over one 90 mile lap. The first true closed-circuit race on roads took place in 1900 over two laps on the Course du Catalogue, a minor event. In 1899, James Gordon Bennett, the proprietor of the New York Herald office in Paris, offered the ACF a trophy to be raced for annually by the automobile clubs of the various countries. They had to choose their own teams of drivers and cars. This international challenge trophy race was held from 1900 to 1905.

The Formulae for the so-called Grands Prix has gone through many changes since its inception. Repeatedly, since the beginning of racing, it had been declared: "Today's racing cars are too fast and too dangerous." Therefore new formulae had frequently been introduced to curb the speed of the grand prix cars. In the early days of racing the term "Formula" was not in use, but the "Regulations" always specified certain restrictions to which the manufacturers had to conform.


1895On November 12, 1895 the Automobile Club de France - ACF - was formed by Baron de Zuylen, Comte de Dion and Paul Meyan. Baron de Zuylen was elected President. The ACF was to govern the major races in France and set the rules for their annual race, called 'The Grand Prix' from 1906 to 1914. From 1921 on the event was named 'GRAND PRIX de l'A.C.F.' until 1967, after which it converted to 'French Grand Prix'.
 
1895
Regulations for the Paris - Bordeaux race stipulated a pure race where the winner was the first car home, seating more than two passengers. Drivers could be changed during the race and repairs were allowed only with materials carried on the car, supervised by "Commissaires". Manufacturers were prohibited to enter several identical cars but allowed an unlimited number of different cars.
 
1895-1903The heavy cars of the early town-to-town races were at the top of the echelon in automobile racing.
 
1896
Regulations for the Paris - Marseille - Paris race referred mainly to the repair of cars. Each car had to carry an observer chosen by the ACF. The competing vehicles were divided into three classes:
            Class A. - Cars.
                        Series 1 : Cars seating two, three, or four persons.

                        Series 2 : Cars seating more than four.
            Class B. - Motor Cycles weighing less than 150 kg - 330 lb (including tricycles).
                        Series 1 : Motor Cycles without pedals.
                        Series 2 : Motor Cycles with pedals.
            Class C. - Any vehicle not entering into either of the above classes.
 
1897
Regulations for the Marseille - Nice - La Turbie race divided competitors into two classes.
            1. All four-wheeled vehicles.
            2. All three-wheeled type, tricycles or voiturettes.
 
1897
Regulations for the Paris - Trouville race split the event into two classes.
            1. Motor cycles weighing less than 200 kg - 441 lb.
            2. Cars seating at least two persons side by side.
 
1898
Regulations for the Marseille - Nice race, for the first time, separated the little from the big cars.
            Class 1. Cars weighing more than 400 kg - 882 lb in running order (known as Heavy Cars).
            Class 2. Cars weighing 200 to 400 kg - 441 to 882 lb and two persons side by side (Voiturettes).
            Class 3. Motor cycles weighing between 100 kg and 200 kg - 220 to 441 lb; including tricycles.
            Class 4. Motor cycles weighing less than 100 kg - 220 lb; included 90 kg - 198 lb De Dion tricycles.
 
1898
Regulations for the Paris - Amsterdam race divided cars, motor cycles and divers.
            Cars series 1. - seating 2 or 3 persons.
            Cars series 2. - seating 4 or 5 persons.
            Cars series 3. - seating 6 and more.
            Motorcycles 1. - weighing less than 100 kg - 220 lb, seating one person.
            Motorcycles 2. - weighing less than 100 kg - 220 lb, seating more than one person.
            Motorcycles 3. - weighing between 100 and 200 kg - 220 and 441 lb, seating one person.
            Motorcycles 4. - weighing between 100 and 200 kg - 220 and 441 lb, seating more than one person.
            "Divers" - all vehicles not entered into the above classes.
 
1899
Regulations for the Tour de France divided contestants into three classes.
            1. Cars with at least two places side by side and two passengers of 70 kg - 154 lb weight.
            2. Motor cycles weighing less than 150 kg - 330 lb.
            3. Any vehicle not entering in the above categories.
 
1900-1905The Gordon Bennett Races or Prix Internationale were staged annually in Europe between 1900 and 1905
 
1900
Gordon Bennett race regulations consisted of 22 articles. The race was international; the representing club of each country could enter only three cars, which had to be constructed in every detail in the country they represented. The car's empty weight was restricted between 400 and 1000 kg - 882 and 2204 lb; this was without drivers and supplies: oil, fuel, water, accumulators, tools, spare parts, luggage, clothing and food supplies. Cars had to have at least two seats side by side, carrying two passengers of a medium 60 kg weight; in case the drivers weight was less, it had to be made up with ballast. Minimum race distance of 550 to 650 km - 342 to 403 mi. To better differentiate between the competing nations, cars had to be painted for the first time in different colors: France in blue, Belgium in yellow, America in red and Germany in white.
 
1900
Regulations for the Paris - Toulouse - Paris race divided competitors into three categories.
            1. Cycles weighing less than 250 kg - 551 lb.
            2. Voiturettes weighing less than 400 kg - 882 lb.
            3. Cars weighing more than 400 kg - 882 lb.
 
1901
Paris - Bordeaux race regulations introduced one new racing category. The four classes based on weight were used for the first time in this race and remained almost unchanged over the next six years.
            A - Over 650 kg "two-seated cars" or heavy cars, the ultimate racing machine of the time.
            B - 400 to 650 kg "light cars"
            C - 250 to 400 kg "voiturettes"
            D - under 250 kg Motor cycles (including tricycles)
 
1901
Paris - Berlin race regulations included a rule requiring all cars to have the exhaust arranged in such a way as not to impinge upon the ground and disturb the dust on the road.
 
1902
Maximum weight regulation of 1000 kg - 2204 lb for Heavy Cars was set forth by the ACF. This rule was first applied at the Circuit du Nord. The Paris - Vienna race was run also to this rule with the addition of allowing 7 kg - 15.4 lb extra if a magneto was fitted.
 
1902
Gordon Bennett maximum weight regulation of 1000 kg - 2204 lb, 7 kg allowed in case of magneto.
 
1903
Maximum weight regulation of 1000 kg - 2204 lb, remained the same as in 1902.
 
1903
Gordon Bennett race regulations were the same as in 1902. The various car colors for the nations were now green for the British, the French were light-blue, the American red (with green flourishes) and the German cars were white.
 
1903 On December 17, 1903, the French magazine l'Auto organized in Paris the first Calendar Congress. Delegates from the different automobile clubs of France and abroad established the most important ground line for the 1904 program. The magazine's idea was, to have already at the end of a calendar year a broad outline of the dates for the following year's sporting events in agreement with the leading foreign clubs.
 
1904
Maximum weight regulation of 1000 kg - 2204 lb as in 1902.
 
1904
Gordon Bennett race maintained the 1902 weight regulations of maximum 1000 kg - 2204 lb. The cars were again painted in different colors: the British were green, the French blue, the German white the Austrian black-yellow, the Italian black, the Belgian yellow and one Swiss car red and yellow.
 
1904 On June 20, 1904, after the Gordon Bennett race, a conference was held in Homburg (Germany) by the International Automobile Clubs. Count Sierstorpff, Vice-President of the German Automobile Club, initiated the formation of an International Association, whose amalgamation became then known as the A.I.A.C.R. (Association Internationale des Automobile Clubs Reconnus). In addition to the German Automobile Club, others present were the Automobile Club of France, Great Britain, Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, Switzerland, Spain, America, Russia, Denmark and Portugal, all founding members of the A.I.A.C.R.
 
1904
Vanderbilt Cup Race adopted weight regulation of 400 to 1000 kg - 882 to 2204 lb. The race was international; all equipment on the car had to be constructed in every detail in the country they represented.
 
1905
Maximum weight regulation of 1000 kg - 2204 lb as in 1902.
 
1905
Gordon Bennett Race kept 1902 weight regulation of maximum 1000 kg - 2204 lb.
 
1905
Vanderbilt Cup Race kept maximum weight regulation of 1000 kg - 2204 lb.
 
1906The first Grand Prix took place in 1906.The ACF determined the annual Grand Prix formula and labored to obtain annually the agreement of all other competing countries for their new Grand Prix regulations. Consequently an international commission was formed, led by the ACF.
 
1906
Maximum weight limitation of 1000 kg - 2204 lb; an additional 7 kg - 15.43 lb was allowed for a car fitted with a magneto. Horn, fenders, lanterns, lantern holders, upholstery and repair box (if this did not serve as seat) were not included in the weight. The weight of driver and his mechanic had to be at least 120 kg - 264 lb; the mechanic was allowed to be changed during the race and the driver could be changed only after the first day. Not more than three cars per manufacturer were allowed. The exhaust pipes had to run horizontally backwards and at its end had to be bent upward to prevent dust whirling up. Engine size free.
 
1906
Vanderbilt Cup Race kept the maximum weight limitation of 1000 kg - 2204 lb.
 
1906
Targa Florio regulations were for standard stock or production cars of which at least 10 of each type had been built. 1. Cars below 15,000 Frcs. chassis price and in weight below 1,000 kg. 2. Cars between 15,000 and 20,000 Frcs. chassis price and in weight up to 1,300 kg. The chassis sales price, also engine bore and stroke had to be given. Likewise, a chassis price list had to be submitted. The entered cars had to comply with the type in the price list, otherwise the start was denied. The commissioners had the right to have one cylinder removed before the race to determine the correctness of measurements given. Each manufacturer could be represented by six cars; three cars by the factory, the other three to be entered by private owners. In case the factory did not enter, up to six private cars of that make were allowed. Entry fee for each car was 300 Frcs. The body style could be limited to 2 seats as was usual for racing cars. Every protest against a competitor had to be supported with a 500 Frcs. fee. Entries could not be accepted if the registered car was not mass-produced, namely in quantities of at least 10 identical examples.
 
1907
Kaiserpreis formula had a maximum 8.0-liter - 488 ci engine capacity and also a minimum weight restriction of 1175 kg - 2590 lb. International race for up to three cars per manufacturer. Cars had to be occupied by two grown-up people, sitting side by side. The cars had to be painted in different national colors and were the same as in the ACF regulations only adding Austria with black-yellow.
 
1907
Grand Prix fuel consumption formula; limited to 30 liter per 100 km - 9.4 mpg. No weight limit. Re-introduction of national colors as used in the Gordon Bennett Cup races, when Italian cars used to be black and had to be now red; USA changed from red only to now red-white; English, green: French, blue; German, white; Belgian, yellow; Swiss, red-yellow.
 
1907
Targa Florio regulations specified weight in proportion to engine cylinder bore, which was limited between 120 and 130 mm for cars with 4-cylinder engines and 6-cylinder engines limited within 75 and 90 mm bore; "Gobron type" dimensions, 110 mm bore and 200 mm stroke. The weight of the cars was not to be less than 1000 kg, with an extra 20 kg for every mm cylinder bore above 120 mm. No more than 4 cars per make could be entered. Four days before the race competitors had to strip cylinders of cars for inspection. If the cylinder dimensions did not conform within the regulations, the car was rejected from the race.
 
1907-The Ostend Formula for 1908 was accepted by the A.I.A.C.R. at the international conference in Ostend.
 
1908
Ostend Formula; minimum dry weight of 1100 kg - 2425 lb, including oil and other lubricants but without water, fuel, tools, spare wheels and fenders; maximum cylinder bore 155 mm for 4-cylinder engine, same usable piston area for other cylinder number (1-cylinder 310 mm, 2-cylinder 219 mm, 3-cylinder 179 mm, 6-cylinder 127 mm, 8-cylinder 110 mm engine); stroke not limited. Weight of driver and his mechanic had to be at least 120 kg - 265 lb; only they were allowed to do repairs. Not more than three cars per manufacturer could be entered. Formula decided by AIACR on July 15, 1907 in Ostend.
 
1908
American Grand Prize (first), conditions limited entries to no more than three cars of any one make. The regulations set an engine limit of 6.10 inch - 155 mm bore.
 
1908
Vanderbilt Cup Race raised the maximum weight limit to 1200 kg - 2645 lb.
 
1908
Targa Florio regulations were as in 1907.
 
1909-1911In these years, the Grand Prix did not take place and no races were held to this formula, but predominantly for voiturettes and also to Formula Libre (no restrictions). Only the Formula Libre races are shown.
 
1909-1911
The 1909 Grand Prix Formula had been accepted on November 19, 1908 at the international conference of the A.I.A.C.R. The regulations were 130 mm bore for 4-cylinder engines and 106 mm for 6-cylinder engines and a minimum weight of 900 kg. But this formula was never applied since the 1909 Grand Prix failed to take place, starting a 3-year pause in grand prix racing, during which the existing formula was thoroughly criticized and condemned. However, nobody could present a better proposal.
 
1909
Vanderbilt Cup Race regulations restricted engine capacity from 301 to 600 ci - 4.9 to 9.8-liter, the same as used by the ACA and AAA for the Heavy Car Races of the production models - stock chassis. Thus the status of this event changed from great international to that of a mere national stock chassis race.
 
1909
Targa Florio regulations were none, a free formula.
 
1910
American Heavy Car Race regulations stipulated production models - stock chassis - with engines from 301 to 600 ci - 4.9 to 9.8-liter displacement.
 
1910
Vanderbilt Cup Race regulations restricted engine capacity from 301 to 600 ci - 4.9 to 9.8-liter.
 
1910
American Grand Prize (second), regulations had unrestricted engine bore and stroke.
 
1910
Targa Florio regulations called for free formula cars plus a second category for voiturettes. Those had a limited bore, which was 65 mm for 4-cylinder engines, 80 mm for 2-cylinder engines and 1-cylinder engines were limited to 100 mm bore.
 
1911
Indianapolis 500 rules included maximum engine size of 600 cubic inches - 9.8-liter and a minimum weight of 2300 lb - 1044 kg.
 
1911
American Heavy Car Race regulations stipulated production models - stock chassis - with engines from 301 to 450 ci - 4.933 to 7.375-liter displacement.
 
1911
Vanderbilt Cup Race regulations restricted engine capacity still from 301 to 600 ci - 4.9 to 9.8-liter.
 
1911
American Grand Prize (third), regulations had again unrestricted engine bore and stroke.
 
1911
Targa Florio regulations were none given, except that cars with 4-cylinder engines had to have 100 mm cylinder bore or less.
 
1912
The ACF revived their annual Grand Prix with neither weight nor engine restrictions except a maximum width of a car not to exceed 175 cm - 69 in.
 
1912
Indianapolis 500 maximum engine displacement of 600 cubic inches - 9.834-liter as in 1911.
 
1912
Vanderbilt Cup Race regulations still restricted engine capacity from 301 to 600 ci - 4.9 to 9.8-liter.
 
1912
American Grand Prize (fourth), regulations had unlimited engine capacity.
 
1912
Targa Florio regulations called for a change of circuit, a Tour of Sicily. This was a non-stop drive around the island for 2-seat cars, otherwise no restrictions.
 
1913
Fuel consumption formula; limited to 20 liter per 100 km - 14.12 mpg; mandatory standard cylindrical tank exposed in rear; streamlined tails behind this tank were forbidden. The weight of the car was restricted to between 800 and 1100 kg - 1763 and 2425 lb without fuel, oil, water, tools, spare parts, etc.
 
1913
American Heavy Car Race regulations stipulated production models - stock chassis - with engines up to 600 cubic inches - 9.834-liter displacement.
 
1913
Indianapolis 500 maximum engine size reduced to 450 cubic inches - 7.375-liter.
 
1913
Targa Florio regulations required the Tour of Sicily to be run in two stages over two consecutive days with a maximum time allowance of 24 hours. The cars had to be locked overnight in a closed car park at Agrigento, where they would be left untouched until the following morning.
 
1914
4.5-liter engine capacity formula without forced induction; weight of car was restricted to between 800 and 1100 kg - 1763-2425 lb without fuel, oil, water, tools or spare parts. This resulted in the smallest grand prix cars ever. Streamlined tails were again allowed. Entry of maximum five cars per manufacturer.
 
1914
Vanderbilt Cup Race regulations still restricted engine capacity from 301 to 600 ci - 4.9 to 9.8-liter.
 
1914
American Grand Prize (fifth), regulations had no engine restrictions and was billed free-for-all.
 
1914
Indianapolis 500 maximum engine displacement of 450 cubic inches - 7.375-liter.
 
1914
Targa Florio regulations for the Tour of Sicily were same as in 1913. The maximum engine capacity was limited to 9-liter.
 
1915-1918WW I broke out weeks after the 1914 Grand Prix. During the war, which stopped with the armistice at the Western Front in November 1918, racing had come to a halt in Europe but continued in the USA.
 
1915
American Grand Prize (sixth), regulations restricted engine capacity to 450 ci - 7.375-liter.
 
1915
Vanderbilt Cup Race regulations restricted engine capacity to 450 cubic inches - 7.375-liter.
 
1915
Indianapolis 500 maximum engine capacity of 300 cubic inches - 4.917-liter. No more than three cars of the same make could start in the race.
 
1916
Indianapolis 500 maximum engine displacement of 300 cubic inches - 4.917-liter.
 
1916
Vanderbilt Cup Race regulations restricted engine capacity to 450 cubic inches - 7.375-liter.
 
1916
American Grand Prize (seventh), regulations restricted engine capacity to 450 ci - 7.375-liter.
 
1919-1920The Manufacturers’ Association in France decided not to support the French Grand Prix in 1919 and 1920. Likewise, the Association of British Automobile Manufacturers also decided against racing in those years in view of the industry's situation after the war. Without a Grand Prix Formula in place, races were run to Formula Libre and had a doubtful Grand Prix stature.
 
1919
Indianapolis 500 maximum engine displacement of 300 cubic inches - 4.917-liter.
 
1919
Targa Florio regulations were for cars with 4-cyl. engines with a bore of 60 and 130 mm, divided into 7 categories, also allowing 6, 8 and 12 cylinder engines, provided that the bore was correspondingly smaller to assure that the power of the 4-cylinder engines was not exceeded. 1. category: 4-cyl. engines with 60-70 mm bore, 6-cyl. with 52-56 mm bore; 2. category: 4-cyl. with 71-80 mm bore, 6-cyl. with 57-63 mm bore, 8-cyl. with 51-55 mm bore; 3. category: 4-cyl. 81-90 mm, 6-cyl. 64-72 mm, 8-cyl. 56-62 mm; 4. category: 4-cyl. 91-100mm, 6-cyl. 73-83 mm, 8-cyl. 63-70 mm, 12-cyl. 53-60 mm; 5. category: 4-cyl. 101- 110 mm, 6-cyl. 84-94 mm, 8-cyl. 71-78 mm, 12-cyl. 61-68 mm; 6. category: 4-cyl. 111-120 mm, 6-cyl. 95- 105 mm, 8-cyl. 79-87 mm, 12-cyl. 69-77 mm; 7. category: 4-cyl. 121-130 mm, 6-cyl. 106-117 mm, 8-cyl. 88-98 mm, 12-cyl. 78-88 mm bore.
 
1920
No formula existed in Europe. At the Indianapolis 500 mile race the 3-liter - 183 ci maximum engine capacity was introduced, which had already been planned for Europe before the war.
 
1920
Targa Florio regulations were only for cars with production chassis as was delivered per catalog to the public. The cars were divided by engine capacity into 7 categories, namely for cars with an engine capacity of up to 1.5-liter, 2-liter, 2.5-liter, 3-liter, 4-liter, 5-liter and more than 5-liter.
 
1921
3-liter maximum engine capacity formula, already applied in America, was now adopted for grand prix racing plus a minimum weight limit of 800 kg - 1763 lb was added. The chassis' of that time were not in par with the highly developed engines, therefore a reduction for 1922 was envisaged.
 
1921
Targa Florio regulations specified racing cars without restriction of engine capacity and production cars divided into four categories according to engine capacity up to 2-liter, 3-liter, 4.5-liter and more than 4.5-liter. As production car was understood only a car described in the normal factory sales catalogues. Further engine stroke and bore, length and with of chassis, lay-out of the valves, dimension and shape of radiator, lights, position of gearbox and control levers, diameter and stroke of valves, pistons and conecting rods had to conform with the production type. The bodywork was free under condition that it had two seats for competitors; the generator dynamo was not removed, including headlamps and lights.
 
1922 On December 7, 1922 at their Annual General Meeting in London the A.I.A.C.R. (Association Internationale des Automobile Clubs Reconnus) finally formed an international subcommittee, the C.S.I. (Commission Sportive Internationale) to look after all aspects of motor racing, draw up regulations and introduce the rules for international grand prix racing. From 1904 to 1922 the ACF continiously had persisted that only they alone were to undertake the establishment of the international race formulas and sporting rules. As members of the CSI were elected representatives from the Automobile Clubs of France, Italy, Great Britain, America, Belgium, Austria and Spain. The CSI convened for the first time on this same day and elected as President the Belgian René de Knyff, who exercised this post until 1946. The French Augustin Pérouse succeeded him.
 
1922-1924
2-liter formula; maximum engine capacity of 2.0-liter; minimum weight of 650 kg - 1433 lb; the end of car was not to extend beyond the center of rear axle by more than 150 cm. The weight of driver and his mechanic had to have a total weight of at least 120 kg - 264 lb. With the introduction of the supercharger, the 2-liter cars soon proved to be too fast and dangerous, reaching now top speeds in excess of 220 km/h.
 
1922
Targa Florio regulations specified racing cars without restriction of engine capacity and production cars divided into six categories according to engine capacity up to 1.1-liter, 1.5-liter, 2-liter, 3-liter, 4.5-liter and over 4.5-liter. As production car was understood only a car described in the normal factory sales catalogues. As such it had to be for sale and at least 50 chassis had to be produced by the factory. Further engine stroke and bore, also the lay-out of the valves had to conform with the production type. Competitors had to strip cylinders of engines for inspection. If the production car did not conform with the characteristics required, it was classified as racing car. Entry fee for each car was 2000 lires. The maximum allowable time for classification was ten hours. Drivers and riding mechanics could be changed during the race, however only at the end of a lap, in presence of a commission of drivers and mechanics, which had to be predetermined beforehand.
 
1923 On November 2, 1923, the International Calendar Congress took place in Paris to determine dates for the most important races, followed the next day by the A.I.A.C.R. meeting. In 1923, C.S.I. member countries were the same as the year before: America, Austria, Belgium, England, France and Italy.
 
1923
Indianapolis 500 rules reduced engine size from 183 to 122 cubic inch , to match the 2.0-liter GP formula, then in effect. Indianapolis became part of the manufacturers world championship from 1925 on.
 
1923
Targa Florio regulations specified only engine capacity for six categories: up to 1.1-liter, 1.5-liter, 2-liter, 3-liter, 4.5-liter and over 4.5-liter. A category for racing cars was not given only engine capacity was stated.
 
1924
Targa Florio regulations divided the cars into seven categories: up to 750 cc, 751-1100 cc, 1101-1500 cc, 1501-2000 cc, 2001-3000 cc, 3001-4500 cc and over 4500 cc. Entry fee for each car was 1000 lire and 1500 lire for both races, the Targa and Coppa Florio. Each manufacturer could enter up to 5 cars.
 
1925
2-liter formula; maximum engine capacity of 2.0-liter. Riding mechanics barred at the Grandes Épreuves, however, this rule was not strictly applied at lesser events. Driving mirror was for the first time obligatory as was the now empty mechanic's seat. Minimum empty weight not less than 650 kg - 1433 lb. Minimum body width 80 cm - 31.5 in. Car repair and replenishment restricted to driver and one mechanic.
 
1925
Targa Florio regulations divided cars into 5 categories: up to 1100 cc, 1500 cc, 2000 cc, 3000 cc and over 3000 cc. Each car had to be occupied by two persons sitting next to each other of no less than 120 kg. Driver and riding mechanic could be exchanged during the race with a beforehand named driver and riding mechanic but only at the end of a lap in presence of a commissioner but substitutes had to be licensed. The licensed mechanic had no right to drive. Classified in each category were only those who completed the race within one hour of the first classified and only within a maximum of 10 hours. Entry fee for each car was 1000 lires per race and 1500 lires for both, the Targa and Coppa Florio.
 
1925 First World Championship for manufacturers was held in 1925 and set up annually until 1930. Only the first three took place, the others failed AIACR approval because of rules noncompliance. Following WW I, German cars and drivers were excluded from GP racing in France, Belgium and England. In May 1925, the German Automobile Club was re-admitted into the A.I.A.C.R. and in November 1925, also into the CSI.
 
1926
1.5-liter formula, maximum engine capacity. Regulations for the Indianapolis 500 cars changed from 122 cubic inches to 91.5, matching the 1.5-liter Grand Prix Formula. Minimum weight of 600 kg - 1322 lb; minimum body width of 80 cm - 31.5 in. Still two seats required. But cars still reached 200 km/h. Interest in the formula declined greatly because the companies who as a rule built only large engines, did not want to occupy themselves with the study of 1,5-liter engines. Thus a change in 1928 was planned.
 
1926
Indianapolis 500 rules reduced engine size from 122 to 91.5 cubic inch , to match the 1.5-liter GP Formula, changed for 1925. Indianapolis remained part of the world championship until 1930.
 
1926
Targa Florio regulations were for cars divided into four categories: up to 1100 cc, 1500 cc, 2000 cc and over 2000 cc. Each car had to have two seats next to each other, minimum weight of driver and mechanic together of 120 kg. If the mechanic's seat remained unoccupied, a ballast of 80 kg had to be carried along. Driver and mechanic could exchange each other but only at the end of each lap. Entry fee was 1000 lire per car. To be classified all cars had to complete the 4-lap race within 10 hours except 1100cc category cars, which could not exceed a maximum time of 8 hours with a racing distance of only 3 laps.
 
1927
1.5-liter formula; minimum weight limit now increased to 700 kg - 1543 lb. Two seats remain mandatory but at the same time single-seater cars were allowed provided the seat had a minimum width of 80 cm - 31.5 in and a minimum height of 25 cm - 9.8 in. Superchargers were allowed.
 
1927
Targa Florio regulations were for racing cars divided into three categories: up to 1100 cc, 1500 cc, and over 1500 cc.
 
1928
Formula Libre; no engine capacity limit; car weights between 550 and 750kg - 1212 and 1653 lb. Minimum race distance 600 km - 372 mi (only used for Italian Grand Pix).
 
1928
Targa Florio regulations were for racing cars divided into five categories: up to 1100 cc, 1500 cc, 2000 cc, 3000 cc and 5000 cc.
 
1928-1929 Some manufacturers lost interest and withdrew, reducing the glamour of grand prix racing. The formula was unpopular and some races were held for sports cars. Bugatti and Maserati sold grand prix racing cars.
 
1929
Formula Libre; minimum car weight raised to 900 kg - 1980 lb. Commercial fuel now mandatory with a consumption limit of 14 kg fuel and oil per 100 km - 14.5 mpg (only used at French and Spanish Grand Prix). Two-seater body with minimum body width of 100 cm - 39.3 in. Minimum race distance 600 km - 373 mi. Two mechanics in addition to the driver(s) allowed to assist at pit stops.
 
1929
Targa Florio regulations were for racing cars up to 1.1-liter and over 1.1-liter.
 
1930
Formula Libre as in 1929; except amended fuel consumption formula permitting up to 30% benzol mixed with commercial fuel. (Only used for the European Grand Prix in Spa, which was not even run at required minimum distance. Minimum engine capacity of 1.1-liter; minimum race distance 600 km - 372 mi.
 
1930
Indianapolis departed from the 1.5-liter GP formula (91,5 cu in) by going up to 366 cubic inches.
 
1930
Targa Florio regulations did not specify any categories for the racing cars.
 
1931
Formula Libre, except Grandes Épreuves counting towards the European Championship (Italian, French and Belgian Grand Prix) to last ten hours. Two drivers per car assigned for 10-hour races.
 
1931
Targa Florio regulations were in general the same as in 1930, open for racing cars without any subdivision into classes or engine capacity. Entry fee was 1000 lire per car.
 
1931-First European Championship for drivers held, devised from 1931 to 1932 and revived from 1935 to 1939.
 
1932
Formula Libre but the Grandes Épreuves to last now between five and ten hours.
Two-seater body with minimum width of 100 cm; single-seat (monoposto) bodies allowed as of 1932.
 
1932
Targa Florio regulations were as in 1931, except that for carrying out the Italian Championship it differed between cars with up to 1100 cc cylinder capacity, from 1100 to 1500 cc and over 1500 cc.
 
1933
Formula Libre but the Grandes Épreuves to last now at least 500 km - 312 mi.
 
1933
Targa Florio regulations combined all cars into one class regardless of engine capacity. A total of 7 laps or 504 km had to be completed. Entry fee was 500 lire per car. Part of the Italian Championship.
 
1934-1936
750 kg formula, maximum dry weight of 750 kg - 1653 lb (excluding water, fuel, oil and tires). Free choice of fuels. Minimum race distance of 500 km - 312 mi; minimum body width 85 cm.
 
1934
Targa Florio regulations were the same as in 1933, except that a total of only 6 laps or 432 km had to be completed. The Targa Florio counted again towards the Italian Championship.
 
1935
Targa Florio regulations were in general the same as before. Two classes were allowed, cars up to 1100 cc and over 1100 cc. The cars up to 1100 cc had to complete 4 laps of the 72 km circuit or 288 km and the large cars had to complete 6 laps or 432 km.
 
1937
750 kg formula extended for one year since the 3-liter formula was announced only in September 1936.
 
1938-1939
3-liter supercharged formula, based on a sliding scale of weight (from 400 to 850 kg) in relation to capacity. The weight led effectively to 3-liter S/C (supercharged) cars or 4.5-liter U/S (unsupercharged) cars with a minimum weight of 850 kg - 1873 lb. The weight included tires, transmission- and differential oil but not cooling water, engine oil, fuel, tools and spare wheels. Relation of supercharged to unsupercharged engine was 1:1.5. Free choice of fuels; minimum race distance 500 km - 312 mi. Formula was in effect until February 28, 1946, when it was annulled at the first postwar AIACR meeting.
 
1939-1945WW II started September 1, 1939. In spite of this, the Belgrade City Race was run two days later. After war's end, the first and only event for Grand Prix cars throughout 1945 was held September 9, in Paris.
 
1946
Formula Libre was in effect, including cars from the 1939 3-liter supercharged era and voiturette formula. However, no Grandes Épreuves took place. At the end of 1946 the CSI (Commission Sportive Internationale) of the newly instituted FIA (Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile) had introduced Formula A for Grand Prix cars, coming officially into force from 1948 on but applied already in 1947.
 
1946From the 20 Formula Libre races that year, seven were major events. The works-supported Alfa Romeo team attended four of these. Only three races can be considered to have a remote significance of a superior GP and have been added to the list of Grandes Épreuves for the sole purpose of finding the "Best Driver" of the year. After WW II, Germany, which had lost the war, was barred from international racing till 1950.
1947-1948
Formula for 1.5 liter for S/C (supercharged) cars and 4.5 liters for U/S (unsupercharged) cars, which had been already determined at the end of 1946, coming officially into force from 1948 on but went in effect already in 1947. Relation of supercharged to unsupercharged engine 1:3. There were no weight restrictions. Minimum race distance of 300 km - 186 mi or minimum of three hours.
 
1949
Formula for 1.5 liter for supercharged cars and 4.5 liters for unsupercharged cars as in 1948; free choice of fuels.
 
1950
Formula as in 1949 but instead of ' Formula A' it was now officially renamed ' Formula 1'. The FIA established the World Championship of drivers.





List Guidelines      Part 1 (1895-1916)      Part 2 (1919-1933)      Part 3 (1934-1949)


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© 2008 Hans Etzrodt , Leif Snellman - Last updated: 13.12.2009