Macpherson, C. B.

The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism: Hobbes to Locke (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1962)

- this Marxist presents levellers as libertarian

- Rothbard: "one of the best summaries of Leveller doctrine"


Aylmer, G. E. ed.

The Levellers in the English Revolution (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1975)

- includes Overton's "An Arrow Against All Tyrants," that deduces property rights from self-ownership


Elliott, Nick

The Levellers - Britain's First Libertarians? ("Economic Affairs" 9(1), October/November 1988, pp. 33-35)


Hoile, David

The Levellers: Libertarian Radicalism and the English Civil War. (Libertarian Heritage No. 5, Libertarian Alliance, London, 1992)


Jacobson, David L.

The English Libertarian Heritage (New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1965.)


Watner, Carl

"Come What, Come Will!" Richard Overton, Libertarian Leveller

(Journal of Libertarian Studies. Volume 4. Number 4. Fall, 1980. p. 405. Pdf-file.)


Watner, Carl

In Favorem Liberatis: The Life and Work of Granville Sharp

(Journal of Libertarian Studies. Volume 4. Number 2. Spring, 1980. p. 215. Pdf-file.)




Ashcraft, Richard

Revolutionary Politics and Locke's Two Treaties of Government (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986)

- Aschraft thesis: Saftesbury explanation for Locke's turn from empirist statism to libertarianism


Suits, David B.

On Locke's argument for Government (Journal of Libertarian Studies. Volume 1. Number 3. Summer 1977. p. 195. Pdf-file.)


Vaughn, Karen I.

John Locke and the labor theory of value (Journal of Libertarian Studies. Volume 2. Number 4. Pdf-file)

- Locke developed a labour theory of property, not value


Sidney, Algernon

Discourses Concerning Government (ed. Thomas G. West. 1698; Liberty Classics: Indianapolis 1990)

- includes a good foreword from T.G. West

- Sydney emphasises the right to rebellion

- Discourses is also online


Preu, James A.

The Dean and the Anarchist (Tallahassee, Fl: Florida State University Press, 1959)

- on Swift's libertarianism




John Cunningham Wood. (ed.)

Adam Smith. Critical Assessments (Croom Helm: Great Britain 1984)

- classic articles from Viner, Coase, Spiegel and West


Macfie, A. L.

The Individual in Society: Papers on Adam Smith (London: Allen & Unwin, 1967)

- p. 49: For the Scottish School "the ultimate unit is society, and moral obligations consist just in the individual's duty to society, where there is conflict with the claims of "self-love""

- p. 54: "It was not to serve the selfish benefit of the individual that he should be given his head ... the belief that Smith was primarily an individualist .. is the very reverse of the truth. For him ... the interests of society were the end".


Cambell, T.D.

Adam Smith's Science of Morals (London: Allen & Unwin, 1971)

- critical of Smith's utilitarian tendencies

- p. 219: In The Theory of Moral Sentiments, "Man was made ... to promote .. the happiness of all".


Paul, Ellen Frankel

Adam Smith: a reappraisal (Journal of Libertarian Studies. Vol. 1. Num. 4. Fall 1977. p. 289. Pdf-file.)

- on Smith’s socialist tendencies


Herbener, Jeffrey

An Integration of The Wealth of Nations with The Theory of Moral Sentiments

(Journal of Libertarian Studies. Volume 8. Number 2. 1984. p. 275. Pdf-file.)


Rashid, Salim

Adam Smith's Acknowledgments: Neo-Plagiarism and the Wealth of Nations

(Journal of Libertarian Studies. Volume 9. Number 2. 1990. p. 1. Pdf-file.)

- Rashid thesis: Smith was an inveterate plagiarist


Ahiakpor, James C.W.

Rashid on Adam Smith: In Need of Proof (Journal of Libertarian Studies. Volume 10. Number 2. Fall 1992. p. 171. Pdf-file.)

- anti-Rashid thesis


Rashid, Salim

Adam Smith and Neo-Plagiarism: A Reply (Journal of Libertarian Studies. Volume 10. Number 2. Fall 1992. p. 181. Pdf-file.)


Rashid, Salim

The Intellectual Standards of Adam Smith's Day (Journal of Libertarian Studies. Volume 11. Number 1. 1994. p. 107. Pdf-file.)


Trescott, Paul B.

Murray Rothbard Confronts Adam Smith (Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics. 1.1. Pdf-file, 665 KB)

- summary of Rothbard’s thesis that Smith was a protosocialist


Rashid, Salim

The Ambitious, Accommodative Adam Smith (Independent Review. 2.1.)

- supports Rothbard’s thesis


Pack, J. Spencer

Capitalism as a Moral System: Adam Smith┤s Critique of the Free Market Economy (Billing & Sons, Ltd.: Worcester 1991)

- Spencer is a socialist who shows the socialist side of Smith


Pack, Spencer J.

Murray Rothbard's Adam Smith (Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics. 1.1. Pdf-file 410 KB)

- a socialist supports Rothbard thesis


Ahiakpor, James C. W.

Did Adam Smith Retard the Development of Economic Analysis?: A Critique of Murray Rothbard's Interpretation (Independent Review 3.3.)

- opposes Rothbard thesis


Anderson, Gary M.

Adam Smith, Justice, and the System of Natural Liberty (Journal of Libertarian Studies. Volume 13. Number 1.Summer 1997. p. 1. Pdf-file.)


Roger W. Garrison

The Intertemporal Adam Smith (Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics. 1.1. Pdf-file 576 KB)




Dicey, A. V.

Lectures in the Relation Between Law and Public Opinion in England during the Nineteenth Century (Macmillan, London, 1905)

- labelled the years between 1825 and 1875 the `period of Benthamism or Individualism', claimed that "laissez-faire was practically the most vital part of Bentham's legislative doctrine."


HalÚvy, ╔lie

The Growth of Philosophic Radicalism (London: Faber & Gwyer, 1928/72)

- Halevy thesis: utilitarianism degenerated liberalism into social physics

- on Bentham:

p. 34: "He liked to think that he had discovered in the principle of utility a simple positive principle on which all men would be able to agree so as to reform society on a systematic plan."

p. 74: "His philosophy is essentially a philosophy written for legislators and men engaged in government, that is to say for men whose profession is to restrict liberty."


Robbins, Lionel

The Theory of Economic Policy in English Classical Political Economy (London: Macmillan and Co., 1952)

- supports Halevy thesis


Long, Douglas C.

Bentham on Liberty (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1977)

- p. 164: Bentham "broadened his view of the functions attributable to a lawmaker until they ... seemed to include every imaginable form of social control over the universe of human actions."


Paul, Ellen Frankel

Moral Revolution and Economic Science, The Demise of Laissez-faire in nineteenth-century British Political Economy

(Greenwood Press: London 1979)

- utilitarianism degenerated classical liberalism into social liberalism


Thomas, William

The Philosophic Radicals (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1979)

- p. 19: "Bentham saw himself as an engineer ... and he had a pioneer inventor's faith in his blueprints as well as a distaste for piecemeal alterations and adaptations of his plans."


Dinwiddy, John

Radicalism and Reform in Britain: 1780-1850 (Hambledon Press, London, 1992)

- p. 311: Benthamites "played a major role in publicising abuses and framing legislation to remove them - in fields such as public health, poor relief, and the restriction of child-labour in factories."


Brebner, J. Bartlet

Laissez-faire and State Intervention in Nineteenth-Century Britain (The Journal of Economic History, Vol. VIII, 1948)

- p. 62: Bentham’s reforms were a "detailed blueprint for a collectivist state"


Bentham, Jeremy

Jeremy Bentham┤s Economic Writings. 2 vols. (ed. Stark, W. Burt Franklin: New York 1952, 1954.)

- Stark points out many socialist aspects of Bentham’s economic plans


Himmelfarb, Gertrude

The Haunted House of Jeremy Bentham (In Victorian Minds. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1968)

- presented the concentration camp-aspects of Bentham’s panopticon prison plan

- panopticon was "nothing less than the existential realization of Philosophical Radicalism" p. 75.


Bahmueller, Charles F.

The National Charity Company: Jeremy Bentham┤s Silent Revolution (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1982)


Letwin, Shirley Robin

The Pursuit of Certainty: David Hume, Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill, Beatrice Webb (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1965)

- critical of constructivist utilitarianism


Mill, James

Political Writings (ed. Terence Boll. Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought Cambridge University Press 1992)

- panopticon on p. 199.


Hayek, Friedrich von

John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor (Routledge & Kegan Paul: London 1951)

- on Taylor's dominating and socialist influence


Joseph Hamburger

Intellectuals in Politics:

John Stuart Mill and the Philosophical Radicals.(New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965)


Paul, Ellen Frankel

J.S. Mill: the Utilitarian influence in the demise of laissez-faire (JLS. Vol. 2 Num. 2. 1978. p. 135.)


Stokes, Eric

The English Utilitarians and India (Oxford University Press 1989)

- utilitarians supported centralist anti-liberal Munroe school against de-centralist liberal Cornwallis school




White, Lawrence H.

Free Banking in Britain: Theory, Experience, and Debate, 1800-1845. (Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1984.)

- White thesis: Scotland had a successful free banking system


Selgin, George, and White, Lawrence

The Evolution of a Free Banking System (Economic Inquiry 25, no. 3 (July 1987): 439-57.)


Rothbard, Murray N.

The Myth of Free Banking in Scotland (Review of Austrian Economics II. Pdf-file 809KB)

- anti-White thesis


Sechrest, Larry J.

White's Free-Banking Thesis: A Case of Mistaken Identity (Review of Austrian Economics II. Pdf-file 462 KB)


Shah, Parth

The Option Clause in Free-Banking Theory and History: A Reappraisal (Review of Austrian Economics. Vol. 10. No. 2. 1997, pp. 1-26. Pdf-file)


Rothbard, Murray N.

The Other Side of the Coin: Free Banking in Chile (Austrian Economics Newsletter, Winter 1989)

- on the failure of free-banking in Chile


Rashid, Salim and Samad, Abdus

Portfolio Management of the Free Banks of Illinois: An Examination of Historical Allegations

(Review of Austrian Economics. Volume 9. Number 2. Pdf-file, 972 KB)




Mendilow, Jonathan

Shelley's Philosophy of Liberty (Journal of Libertarian Studies. Volume 6. Number 2. 1982. p. 169. Pdf-file.)


Sibley, Joel H.

Shelley's Philosophy of Liberty (Journal of Libertarian Studies. Volume 6 Number 3. 1982. p. 333. Pdf-file.)


Cantor, Paul

The Poet as Economist: Shelley's Critique of Paper Money and the British National Debt

(Journal of Libertarian Studies. Volume 13 Number 1. Summer 1997. p. 21. Pdf-file.)


Spall, Richard F.

Landlordism and Liberty: Aristocratic Misrule And the Anti-Corn-Law League

(Journal of Libertarian Studies. Volume 8 Number 2. 1984. p. 213. Pdf-file.)


Gash, Norman

Peel. (Longman, London, 1976.)

- rare biography on Peel and his libertarian aspects


Olson, Walter

Confessions of a Macaulay fan

- on the great classical liberal historian Thomas Babington Macaulay


Macaulay, Thomas Babington

Southey's Colloquies on Society

- Macaulay’s 1830 article on Southey's socialism and imperialism


Cobden, Richard.

Speeches On Questions of Public Policy (Kraus Reprint, New York, 1970.)


Bright, John.

____. Public letters of John Bright. (Kraus Reprint, New York, 1969)

____. Speeches on the American Question. (Kraus Reprint, New York, 1970)

____. Diaries of John Bright. (Kraus Reprint, New York, 1971)




Watner, Carl

The English Individualists As Tehy Appear in Liberty (Journal of Libertarian Studies. Vol. 6. Num. 1.Winter 1982. p. 59. Pdf-file.)


Mack, Eric

Voluntaryism: the political thought of Auberon Herbert (Journal of Libertarian Studies. Vol. 2. Num. 4. 1978. Pdf-file.)


Davies, Stephen

Libertarian feminism in Britain, 1860-1910

- "19th century feminists were radical individualists and libertarians"


Spencer, Herbert

Social Statics (1850; New York: Robert Schalkenbach Foundation, 1954)

- classic presentation of the law of equal freedom


Spencer, Herbert

The Man versus the State (1884; Indianapolis, Liberty Classics, 1982)

- warns against democracy


Spencer, Herbert

The Right to Ignore the State

- anarchist classic


Smith, George H.

Herbert Spencer's Theory of Causation (Journal of Libertarian Studies. Volume 5. Number 2. Spring, 1981. Pdf-file.)


Caneiro, Robert L.

Herbert Spencer as an Anthro-pologist (Journal of Libertarian Studies. Volume 5. Number 2. Spring, 1981. Pdf-file.)




Himmelfarb, Gertrude

Lord Acton (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962)


Hayek, Friedrich August von:

The Actonian Revival: On Lord Acton (1834-1902).

(Ed. Peter G. Klein. The Collected Works of Hayek. Volume IV. Fortunes of Liberalism. Routledge: London 1992.)


Acton, Lord (John)

Essays in the History of Liberty (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 1985)


Acton, Lord (John)

Lectures on Modern History (Collins Clear-Type Press: London and Glasgow 1960)


Acton, Lord (John)

Inaugural Lecture at Cambridge University (June 11, 1895)


Acton, Lord (John)

The History of Freedom in Antiquity


Acton, Lord (John)

The History of Freedom in Christianity