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Geography and Morphology

Waters can be divided into four categories: i) rivers, ii) lakes, iii) transitional waters, and iv) coastal waters. However, wetlands as transitional ecotones between land and water are not defined as a separate water category or water body type because they are ecologically and functionally parts of the water environment as hydromorphological quality elements with potential to play important role as parts of the riparian zones of rivers, shore zones of lakes and tidal zones of transitional and coastal waters in achieving sustainability in river and lake basin management. In the table, waters are divided into lakes, reservoirs (R) and wetland areas (w). 

Sumatra

In Sumatra, Lake Toba is an important and interesting volcanic lake. It is formed in various stages. In the first stage the huge volcanic dome, so called "Batak Tumor", was blown off, and literally about 2,000 cubic km of soil went with the wind compared to 1.5 cubic km in the well known Krakatau explosion. Later, as result of tectonic activity the Samosir Island grew in the lake and was later connected, after underwater eruptions, with a narrow neck of land to the Sumatra Island (Bemmelen 1930).

 

Lake

Type

Altitude, m

Drainage area, km2

Lake area, km2

Depth, m

Volume, km3

Open or closed

(Draw down, m)

Tawar Laut

Tectonic

1100

ND

70.0

80

ND

Open

Toba

Crater

905

3698.5

1130

590

240

Open

Maninjau

Caldera

459

248.0

97.9

169

10.4

Open

Siak Kecil (w)

Phytogenic

10

ND

90.0

5

ND

Open

Dibawah

Tectonic

1462

30.0

11.2

309

ND

Open

Singkarak

Tectonic

362

1976.0

107.8

268

24

Open

Diatas

Tectonic

1531

ND

12.3

44

ND

Open

Kerinci

Tectonic-

Volcanic

710

ND

46.0

97

1.6

Open

Ranau

Tectonic-

Volcanic

540

ND

125.9

229

22.0

Open

Jembawan (w)

Floodplain

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

Open

Ogan-

Komering (w)

Floodplain

20

ND

2000

5

ND

Open

 

Kalimantan  

 

Lake

Type

Altitude, m

Drainage area, km2

Lake area, km2

Depth, m

Volume, km3

Open or closed

(Draw down, m)

Sentarum (w)

Floodplain

35

ND

275.0

8

ND

Open

Bangkau (w)

Floodplain

10

ND

20.0

4.5

ND

Open

Riam Kanan (R)

Reservoir

ND

ND

92.0

ND

1.2

Open (8)

Semayang (w)

Floodplain

5

2430.0

120.0

6

ND

Open

Jempang (w)

Floodplain

50

ND

450.0

6

ND

Open

 

Java  

 

Lake

Type

Altitude, m

Drainage area, km2

Lake area, km2

Depth, m

Volume, km3

Open or closed

(Draw down, m)

Rawa Danau

Volcanic

115

226.2

4.9

13

ND

Open

Saguling (R)

Reservoir

645

3343.0

53.4

90

0.93

Open (20)

Cirata (R)

Reservoir

200

6032.0

62.0

106

2.16

Open (20)

Jatiluhur (R)

Reservoir

111

6590.0

83.0

90

2.97

Open (32)

Darma (R)

Reservoir

670

ND

4.0

14

0.004

Open (-)

Mrica (R)

Reservoir

200

ND

70.0

100

ND

Open (-)

Sempor (R)

Reservoir

100

43.0

29.0

42

0.052

Open (29)

Dieng Plateau

Crater

2000

ND

3.8

88

ND

Open

Rawa Pening

Semi-

natural

463

282.0

25.0

14

0.052

Open

Kedung Ombo (R)

Reservoir

100

ND

46.0

90

0.72

Open (25)

Telaga Merdada

Crater

1900

ND

0.22

4.5

ND

Closed

Telaga Ngebel

Crater

730

ND

1.5

46

ND

Open

Lahor (R)

Reservoir

270

160.0

2.6

30

0.037

Open (19)

Sutami (R)

Reservoir

270

2050.0

15.0

50

0.34

Open (26)

Wlingi (R)

Reservoir

163

ND

3.8

6

0.024

Open (2)

Selorejo (R)

Reservoir

620

ND

4.0

32

0.062

Open (24)

Lamongan

Volcanic

240

ND

0.35

32

0.0065

Open

Telaga Pasir

Crater

1290

ND

0.3

35

0.003

Open

Pakis

Crater

204

ND

0.5

158

0.0345

Open

Klindungan

Crater

10?

ND

1.9

134

ND

Open

Bedali

Crater

150

ND

0.12

10.5

ND

Open

 

Bali

 

Lake

Type

Altitude, m

Drainage area, km2

Lake area, km2

Depth, m

Volume, km3

Open or closed

(Draw down, m)

Palasari (R)

Reservoir

80

ND

3.0

36

0.006

Open (-)

Tamblingan

Caldera

1214

ND

1.9

90

0.027

Closed

Buyan

Caldera

1214

24.1

3.67

87

0.116

Closed

Bratan

Caldera

1231

ND

3.85

22

0.049

Closed

Batur

Caldera

1031

ND

15.9

88

0.82

Closed

 

Lombok  

 

Lake

Type

Altitude, m

Drainage area, km2

Lake area, km2

Depth, m

Volume, km3

Open or closed

Segara Anak

Crater

2008

ND

11.3

190

ND

Open

 

Flores  

 

Lake

Type

Altitude, m

Drainage area, km2

Lake area, km2

Depth, m

Volume, km3

Open or closed

Tigawarna

Crater

1410

ND

0.4

60

ND

Closed

 

Sulawesi  

 

Lake

Type

Altitude, m

Drainage area, km2

Lake area, km2

Depth, m

Volume, km3

Open or closed

Tondano

Crater

600

846.0

50.0

20

ND

Open

Limboto (w)

Floodplain

25

920.0

56.0

2.5

ND

Open

Lindu

Tectonic

1000

ND

32.0

100

ND

Open

Poso

Tectonic

485

ND

323.2

450

ND

Open

Rawa Aopa (w)

Floodplain

50

ND

380.0

6

ND

Open

Towuti

Tectonic

293

ND

561.1

203

ND

Open

Mahalona

Tectonic

310

ND

24.2

73

ND

Open

Matano

Tectonic

382

ND

164.1

590

ND

Open

Tempe (w)

Floodplain

5

4654.0

350.0

5

ND

Open

Sidenreng (w)

Floodplain

6

ND

200.0

4

ND

Open

 

Irian Jaya

 

Lake

Type

Altitude, m

Drainage area, km2

Lake area, km2

Depth, m

Volume, km3

Open or closed

Amaru

Solution

250

ND

22.0

20

ND

Open

Gigi

Solution

1780

ND

46.9

ND

ND

Closed

Laamora   Solution 400 ND 62.1 50 ND Closed
Paniai  Tectonic 1742 ND 195.5   50 ND Open

Rombebai (w)

Floodplain

10

ND

149.0

ND

ND

Open

Sentani  Landslide dam 70 ND 93.6 42 ND

Open

 

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