Viikunapuu
Contents:

Introduction

Who is Jesus?
There is only one true God
God is greater than Jesus
God and Jesus are one
Only God can forgive sins?
Did Thomas say Jesus is God?
Was Jesus good?
Son of God
Jesus was in the beginning
Does Jesus call himself with Gods name?
Messiah
Savior
Mediator, Counselor
High priest
Is Jesus third person of God?


Who is disciple of Jesus?
Baptism
Baptism of the Holy Spirit
Remains in the word of Jesus
Mutual love
A born-again child of God


Who will be saved?
Forgiveness
Repentance and improvement
Righteous
Sin
What faith means?
Does works have any meaning?
What is hell?

How should disciple of Jesus live?
Law of Moses
Sacrifice
Owning slaves?
Don’t judge
Worshiping
Dining rules
Priesthood
Second Commandment
New Commandment

God

Bible
Why should you believe?
Is Bible contradictory?

Whole text in pdf-format


21.12.2016

Noah's Ark

Boat or ark?

Commonly people seem to think the ark was similar to modern oil tanker, or ship. Bible however says it was an ark, not a boat or ship. And I believe there is a reason for that.

Ark can be understood as a chest. And chest is usually rectangular box. So, what does the Bible really say about the Ark? Here is probably the only scripture that describes its outlook.

Make an ark of gopher wood. You shall make rooms in the ark, and shall seal it inside and outside with pitch. This is how you shall make it. The length of the ark will be three hundred cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits. You shall make a roof in the ark, and to a cubit shall you finish it upward. You shall set the door of the ark in the side of it. You shall make it with lower, second, and third levels.
Gen. 6:14-16

It gives the main dimensions, not much about the form. So, the form must be deduced from very small amount of information. And by that information many have come to conclusion, it was like in the picture below.



There are many problems with that common design and that is why many say the ark was impossible. The common idea is based on idea how we see ships today. But maybe the idea should be based on, what was the most efficient way to build durable and floating home for the ones that were meant to be in the ark. The Noah's ark plan that is introduced here, is based on that idea. The goal was to plan floating home that could be made as easily as possible and would include many things that are most probably necessary in this case.

First, if we think the materials. Bible tells it was made of gopher wood and coated with pitch/tar. Gopher wood is understood to be something like pine that has resin in it. We don't know what tree Bible means with it. If we assume it was pine, or similar tree, it would be good also because from waste wood, Noah and his group could have produced tar by dry distilling.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tar

What would be the most efficient way to make floating thing out of logs? Making boards and then placing them as in modern wooden boats would be slow and hard work, especially in that large ship. The other option is to make a raft in log house style. Good reasons for log raft is that it doesn't have to be absolutely watertight, it would float if there is enough wood on the base structure. And it will float, because the density of wood is less than the density of water. If trees density is for example 25 lb./ft3 and water is 62 lb./ft3, the wood would carry 37 lb./ft3 load before it begins to sink. That is the reason why in this design, there is 16 feet thick layer of wood under the first floor. That means that the Ark could then carry about 5400-ton load, which is for example over 50000 people, 1 person/ft2. Probably the base floor would work even if not as thick.

Now the floating matter is settled with the thick wood layer. Another major structural issue is, how are the pieces put together? The log house design and the fundamental idea of that how it floats makes it possible to use simple joints that don't need metal parts. The ark itself doesn't have to be as rigid as modern boats must be, because the floating is not based on the same principle. It is enough that the parts stay connected. That can be achieved with traditional log house wood joints.



With that method, the Ark gets the form shown in the plans.



If there were not heavy storms, those joints could work, but in case of heavier weather, there should probably be ties that are drilled through the main logs and fastened as in the picture below. It would secure the logs so that they will not drop, if there would be waves that lift some parts of the ark from the water.



Stability issues

Obviously, a box is not the most hydrodynamical form, but it was probably not the goal. Goal was to make thing that floats and rescues. This log house plan has solved the floating issue and is quite stable, because of the form. Flat base that is relatively heavy is quite stable and is not easily capsized also because the center of gravity is well below the top of first floor, about 2,5 ft. below. But could the ark survive in the open sea? That depends much of the conditions. There is no man-made boat that can't sink in some conditions. By what the Bible tells about the conditions, they were probably not too bad. According to the Bible, it rained 40 days and after that wind came.

The rain was on the earth forty days and forty nights.
Gen. 7:12

The waters prevailed on the earth one hundred fifty days.
Gen. 7:24

God remembered Noah, all the animals, and all the cattle that were with him in the ark; and God made a wind to pass over the earth. The waters subsided. The deep's fountains and the sky's windows were also stopped, and the rain from the sky was restrained. The waters receded from off the earth continually. After the end of one hundred fifty days the waters decreased.
Gen. 8:1-3

We don't know how heavy winds there were, but we can make an assumption on basis of what we now know about winds. Winds are usually caused by the pressures in atmosphere that change on basis of temperature differences. When sun heats earth in some place, warmer air rises and then colder air flows in the place of the warming air and so causes the wind. If the Bible story is true, there was no dry land and it was cloudy and so there was probably not great differences in temperature and thus, not heavy winds. That is why we could assume the weather and waves were not as bad as the nowadays can be. But there were winds. And as the water decreased the winds got probably heavier and waves higher.

The average wave height could have been similar to what we nowadays have in Atlantic Ocean in average and they would still be less than the thickness of the ark's foundation, less than 16 feet. If they would have been for example 16, the water would have risen in some parts higher than the first floor and the walls should have been well sealed with tar. The ark would have floated, even if not absolutely watertight. But the joints would have had harder times. It is possible that the Ark would have slightly bent with the waves. It woudn't be any problem with this structure, because the floating is based on the density of the wood, not on the form and water tightness. Log house structure is good in earthquake situations, so it would also be good in rougher waters also as one could notice from this earthquake simulation.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VHtrMq617gk

In this plan, Ark has no ruder or keel. It means it would float freely and in waves it probably would float long side towards the waves. That way there is not as much stress to the structure, but there is risk that the ark capsizes. That risk is not great, because there is no good reason to assume great storm.

Ventilation, sewer, water and food

It is often pointed out that ventilation, water and sewer would be problem in the Ark. They are obviously important things and should work without too much work from people. In this Ark plan those are easily solved by the structural decisions. The ventilation can be arranged with gaps between interior walls and through the light opening on the roof. Water can be stored in pools in center of the ark, as shown in the plans. And the sewer can be arranged by placing logs so that near the exterior walls, there would be grooves that let the waste float to the sea as shown in the detail section.



Good place for wood storages would be the rooms that are in the top floor, near the center of the ark, because there they would be probably dry.

Take with you of all food that is eaten, and gather it to you; and it will be for food for you, and for them."
Gen. 6:21

In addition to food in the storages, there could be one well in the ark through the bottom structure that could be used as route to dive and catch a fish.

Animals

Last of the greatest problems with ark is, was there enough room. Often it is claimed that there should have been over million different species. But is that good assumption and what the Bible indicates?

Yahweh said to Noah, "Come with all of your household into the ark, for I have seen your righteousness before me in this generation. You shall take seven pairs of every clean animal with you, the male and his female. Of the animals that are not clean, take two, the male and his female. Also of the birds of the sky, seven and seven, male and female, to keep seed alive on the surface of all the earth. Gen. 7:1-3

they, and every animal after its kind, all the cattle after their kind, every creeping thing that creeps on the earth after its kind, and every bird after its kind, every bird of every sort.
Gen. 7:14

Bible tells that earth means dry land (Genesis 1:10). So, the animals that were included, were animals that are on top of dry land. Animals that are in water or below earth were not included. That means, there were species from these groups:
- Mammals, currently 5487 known species
- Birds, currently 999 known species
- Reptiles, currently 8734 known species
- Amphibia, currently 6515 known species
- Some insects that live only on top dry land

Those groups form families followingly:
- Mammals, 87 families
- Birds, 184 families
- Reptiles, 89 families
- Amphibia, 116 families

And there were 4 human families. Now, allegedly all humans are offspring of those 8 people in the ark. Yet nowadays we have more than 8 different looking people. So, it is obvious that there can happen some differentiation in offspring. We can assume that the same is with those animal families. It is possible that there was for example one type of elephants and all modern elephants are offspring of those elephants, which fits well in to modern knowledge about elephants.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elephant

That is why, when we count how many species were in the ark, we can assume that there were approximately as many as there is known animal families of those 4 groups today and that is 476. And because there were 7 pair of clean animals and pairs of unclean animals and the total number of those major animal group families in the ark could have been approximately 4200, if all mammals and birds would be counted as clean animals. And obviously, Noah probably took of the large animals their pup that don't take as much room and food as fully grown. The ark plan has 819 rooms. Most of the families would fit in one room. There would be left about 300 rooms for food and for some insects. Insects are a little different matter, because many of them may survive in water, underground, or are so small that they can easily fit in to the ark.

It is also good to notice, some animals can breed relatively fast and could be used as food for carnivores (for example chicken, eggs).

On basis of all this, I think the ark was really possible.





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Here are the plans for the Ark:
Plans.pdf
 

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