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Is it correct?
This a personal view, I am not trying to be highly scientific, but I do wish for the information to be correctly displayed. If the reader has anything to comment (any errors, misuse of English, wrong names or terminology, absence of important matters, cooperation, etc.) please do not hesitate to contact me.
Three main parts of the whole Karelia are shown in the map.
1. In Finland Karelia is considered as its most eastern historical province. Usually it means so-called Finnish Karelia (dark blue area in the map).
2. East Karelia is the area east from the Finnish eastern border (green area in the map), which has been a completely separate part of Karelia since the treaty of 1617, as it is fully Orthodox.
3. (Violet area "Inkeri" is Ingernland, which was considered a part of Ancient Karelia during prehistoric time of Karelia.)
Nowadays the Republic of Karelia in the Russian Federation consists of East Karelia plus northern part of the lost part of Finnish Karelia
Ancient Karelia covered a somewhat diffuse area, the border being roughly: the eastern part of Gulf of Finland - Ladoga Sea - Onega Sea - White Sea - the northern part of Gulf of Botten. The population and admistrative center was the western cost of Ladoga, i.e. Käkisalmi area and up to Sortavala. Ancient Karelia vanished gradually after the treaty of 1323 and its end was finalized in the treaty of 1617. The Karelian language was common in (Finnish) Karelia up to the rupture of 1656-58. Note that expressions "Ancient" and "ancient" with "Karelia" have been used nowadays only.
Käkisalmi- (or Ladoga)-Karelia and Viborg-Karelia:
The Treaty of Pähkinäsaari in 1323 divided the Ancient Karelia into these two parts. The old administrative districts (Finnish lääni) of Käkisalmi and Viborg include almost the same areas.
• Uralic language tribe:|
A. language family of Samoyed languages
|Nr||TREATY||Year||INFLUENCE IN FINNISH KARELIA|
|00||n.700||formation of Ancient Karelia begins|
|01||1143||first written mentioning about Karelia as Korela|
|02||1227||pagan Karelians were turned to Orthodox faith|
|03||1278||Novgorod overtakes Ancient Karelia|
|04||1293||Sweden's crusade (III) to Karelia and foundation of Viborg|
|05||Pähkinäsaari||1323||first split of Karelia: Viborg's and Käkisalmi's Karelias|
|06||Novgorod||1557||borders mainly the same, practical situation unclear|
|07||Täyssinä||1595||2nd split of Karelia: Sweden expands to north-east in Savo|
|08||Stolbova||1617||destruction of Ancient (=Käkisalmi's Orthodox) Karelia begins|
|09||Vallisaari||1658||end of Rupture War: former borders, final destruction|
|10||Uusikaupunki||1721||Karelia's new owner: Russia (birth of "Old Finland")|
|11||Turku||1743||war of "the hats": Russia expands to Kymi river|
|12||Värälä||1790||war adventure of Gustav III: former borders|
|13||Hamina||1809||social influence only, birth of Finnish Karelia|
|14||Dorpat/Tartu||1920||split of Karelia: Finnish and Russian (=East-)Karelias|
|15||Moskow||1940||destruction of Finnish Karelia|
|16||Paris||1947||confirmation of the Moskow 1944 cease fire|
When the period of Vikings began, ca 800 AD, there were Baltic-Finnish or s.c. Finnic populations around Gulf of Finland, Lakes Ladoga and Onega. These populations started to differentiate first as various tribes (as mentioned above), then much later as nations.
Simplified schema of the birth of Ancient Karelia (re:uino1:):
(Its history of development,
etnisity and language:
according to the previous waves of influence.)
|ca. 700-1000 AD
WAVE OF INFLUENCE
(consists of some
settlement at least)
(identificaty of (ancient)
Karelia in 12th century)
The consequencies of the new border were dramatic. Two completely different areas were born, Viborg-Karelia and Käkisalmi-Karelia, Roman-Catholic and Greek-Catholic (or Orthodox), western and eastern society. The Karelian language was still spoken in Käkisalmi-Karelia though Russian was administrative language. The Finnish language penetrated into Viborg-Karelia and Swedish became administrative language there. The split of Karelian tribe was thus most substantive.
The result of this period is that population in Käkisalmi-Karelia too was changed from Karelian Orthodox, speaking Karelian language to Finnish Lutherian, speaking Finnish language. The original Karelia disappeared, but in its place a new Karelia was born!
It should be mentioned that The Tzar Peter the Great already in 1703 had started building a fortress, Peter-Paul, in the middle of Ingernland, which already at that time was Finnish territory. That fortress on Hare Island was the start St. Petersburg, which in 1712 was declared the capital of Russia. This purposeful and arrogant Russian expansion produced a dominating metropolis situated very close to Finland. Its location thus later caused considerable suffering to Karelia and Finland for so-called "security reasons".
The use of German language was increased in the administration and jurisdiction in Karelia. Language of hearings was Russian or Finnish. However, most law texts and official language of Lutherian church were Swedish. The judge was most often from the Baltics speaking only German. Thus the Finnish language was used by common people only. Shamefully, the Finnish language was not used in majority of circumstances until 20th century.
Karelia was joined with the other Finland in 1811, which meant that Swedish/Finnish law was valid in Karelia too. So-called "Donation Lands" were a real problem in ownership of Karelian countryside. In 1863-64 and 1867 the Diet of Grand Duchy of Finland granted funds for buying out Donation Lands. Buy-outs began in 1871 and lasted more than two decades. The renting farmer had a right to buy from the government, for his future heirs, the land he or his ancestors had used for centuries. A rapid economical growth began in Karelia during this period.
A good example is my grandfather's and his mother's poetry. (in Finnish!)
Finnish artists and the educated class generally were greatly inspired by Karelia and Kalevala in 1890's.
Though Mr. Lenin acknowledged Finnish independence 31.12.1917, Finland had to go through a very bitter and bloody civil war in January-May 1918 for its independence and to maintain its social structure.
Treaty of Tartu (Dorpat) 14.10.1920 with Russia confirmed the borders of Finland, in other words established Finnish rule over the Finnish Karelia. The Finnish government demanded, in vain, a referendum in East-Karelia about the possibility of rejoining with Finland. Karelia was again a subject of trade and finally remained split!
The unavoidable dissolution of the tribes into the surrounding population destroys ruthlessly the nationally weaker part. But - we the Finnish including the "New"-Karelians are free people living in a free country.
After the Soviet Union's disappearance, Finnish citizens have been able to travel to the lost Karelia to see old places and e.g. to recondition old monuments and cemeteries. The Finnish have provided a lot of practical help for the today's inhabitants on Russian side of Karelia.
The Russian government does not want to take it - even the discussion - into a consideration. The Finnish government avoids (open) discussion about it because of international agreements of Paris in 1947 and ESCC in 1975, and a mutual agreement in 1992 with Russia. Public discussion is, however, allowed in Finland.
This s.c. Question of Karelia has been, is and will be "a thorn in the side" in Russo-Finnish relations. (lit.:medvedev)
Text is under continuous construction, and comments will be appreciated.