Colors and patterns of Finnish Lapphund

© 2005, 2008 Liisa Sarakontu,

This article covers all of the normal colors and patterns seen in Finnish Lapphund and tries to take a look on the rarer ones too. Other Lapponian breeds, Lapponian Herder, and Swedish Lapphund, are mentioned too, here and there. At the same time, this article gives hints on suitable color terms to be used when registering a dog (although available terms naturally vary a lot in different countries and in different languages). Most common color terms used in Finnish are also mentioned. The genetics side of the colors is not explained thoroughly, but there are genetics tidbits here and there in the text and a summary of genes.

A rainbow of colors

Finnish Lapphund is one of the most colorful breeds in the world. Just a few other breeds like Saluki, Pomeranian and Border Collie have about as many possible colors and patterns, and probably only Chihuahua has even more. The majority of all known canine colors and patterns is found in Finnish Lapphunds, often as several slightly different versions. Out of the most important colors, just merle (M locus) and silver (G locus) are missing totally.

This great amount of colors is a richness, which has increased the popularity of the breed. Although the breed standard disallows a couple of colors, no colors in this breed have been this far associated with any defects. Blue Lapponian Herders have the CDA syndrome, but it hasn’t yet been found in Finnish Lapphunds. So there is no reason to try to avoid even the rarest colors. Breeding for color, i.e. favoring or avoiding certain colors, isn’t good for any breed. I hope that no Finnish Lapphund breeder starts favoring a certain color, because that makes it harder to pay enough attention to more important traits in a dog.

This rainbow of colors and the large variation inside most basic patterns mean that breeders might have problems when registering pups. You should always be able to use a suitable color term that fits to the dog when it is adult, because it might be hard to try to change a wrong color term later. Pups should be registered as early as possible. But the colors can and do change a lot when a pup grows, so it is best to register only after the pups are at least few weeks old. Most kennel clubs accept just a certain list of short color terms for each breed. So it will be impossible to use a description like “dark brown tanpoint with brindle points and minor white spotting” in the official papers, although that’s just what the dog really is.

The color palette of Lapponian Herders is also rather large but still just a part of what’s available in Finnish Lapphunds. For example, the saddle pattern is totally missing in them, domino, blue and lilac are very rare, and solid yellow isn’t an accepted color, although such dogs do exist. I hope that this article will help to figure out the colors of that breed too, because these related breeds share the same color terms in Finnish and in English. The third Lapponian breed, Swedish Lapphund, is always just solid black or black with minor white spotting, so it doesn't get much attention in this article.

Basic colors and patterns

Every dog has three basic color elements in their coat: dark pigment eumelanin, yellow pigment phaeomelanin, and lack of pigment, which gives white spotting.

A typical Finnish Lapphund is a dark dog, which has a certain amount of paler coat areas. The dark pigment, eumelanin, is normally black (Finnish: musta). It can also be brown (ruskea/parkki), which varies from dark coffee color to paler brown, nearly beige. In rather rare cases, eumelanin is a certain shade of slate grey, which is called blue (sininen) in color genetics. Still rarer is lilac (liila/siniparkki), which can be seen when a dog is both brown and blue dilute at the same time. If dark pigment is missing totally, all of the coat is phaeomelanin. These dogs are any shade of tan or yellow. Paler shades like yellow (keltainen) or cream (kerma) are the most common.

Four basic shades of eumelanin

Solid black and solid brown Finnish Lapphunds exist, but most often they have also paler coat areas, which show phaeomelanin pigment. If their amount is just minimal, they can be seen just on paws, under the tail and close to the eyes. Normally most of the underside of a dog is phaeomelanin. When there is a maximum amount of phaeomelanin, it can cover a dog totally, so that eumelanin can be seen just on few hair tips on the back of a dog. All these combinations of eumelanin and phaeomelanin are patterns, and when you register a dog, the pattern should be mentioned somehow if possible.

Shades of phaeomelanin

Most Finnish Lapphunds have also white (valkoinen, valkea) spots in their coats. They are areas where both color pigments are totally missing. There can be just a few white hairs on chest or one toe. When the amount of white is at maximum, it can cover nearly all of the dog. In this case, the true color of the dog is visible just from the few colored patches, which are most often seen on head and close to the base of the tail. White spotting isn’t part of any normal coat pattern, but it is kind of “added” to any basic pattern. When the phaeomelanin pigment is very pale, like on many dominos, it is really hard to see the border between true white and colored, but very pale coat areas.

Then let’s go to the actual colors and patterns. First, the most common patterns, solid dark, tanpoint, wolf pattern, sable and yellow, are covered. Then the rarer patterns domino, spectacles, saddle, brindle and mask get their own short chapters. All these are caused by different combinations of eumelanin and phaeomelanin. And at last white spotting is discussed.

Solid black and solid brown

Swedish Lapphunds are normally solid black without any phaeomelanin in their coats. This color is also seen in both Finnish Lapphund and Lapponian Herder. All of the coat is covered with the dark pigment, eumelanin. White spotting can exist, but there are no clear yellow or greyish patches in the coat. The coat can be either jet black or brownish black, and its shade can change after shedding or due to the time of the year. It is best to register such a dog as just black without any extra terms. Genetically, these solid dark Finnish Lapphunds can be divided into two classes, dominant blacks (K/–) and recessive blacks (a/a), but they can’t be told apart by just looks.

When a dog has gene pair b/b, eumelanin isn’t black but brown. In other breeds, this can be called as chocolate, liver or even red, but these words are not in use in Lapponian breeds, so the word brown is the best option when registering. Solid blue and solid lilac are theoretically possible colors, but this far very few of such dogs have been born. Solid blues (d/d) can be registered as blue. Lilac (b/b d/d) can be harder, as the best genetic term lilac is not in use with all kennel clubs, but such dogs are registered for example as “fawns” or “isabellas.”

Solid blacks and solid browns

Seal (karhunmusta) means a black dog that has pale undercoat or pale hair roots, and this paleness is at least partially visible through the black overlay. There are no clear phaeomelanin patches in the coat. It is best not to use the term seal when registering a dog, as most pups which look like seals when they are born turn into some kind of tanpoints or dark wolf patterneds when they grow up, and most true seals look just jet black as pups. Seals are probably most often genetically heterozygous dominant black, which carry either sable or wolf pattern (Ay/– K/k, aw/– K/k). A brown dog can also be seal; the black pigment is just replaced by brown.

Summer black or fading black (kulomusta) means (mostly) black dog in which the tips of the black hairs have turned reddish or rusty due to the sun, hormonal balance or ready-to-moult coat. Some dogs fade much more than others, but normally even the most faded ones turn back into jet blacks after shedding. As this trait is normally just temporary, it is best not to mention it when registering, and you can’t actually even see from the puppy coat if the eumelanin is going to stay jet black all year round or if it is going to fade easily. Brown dogs can also fade, but their coats don’t turn redder but just paler.


Tanpoint pattern

Finnish Lapphunds have several possible combinations of eumelanin and phaeomelanin, although most other breeds have just one such pattern, tanpoint, which is most often called as “black and tan.” Doberman and Rottweiler are good examples of a very clear, classic tanpoint pattern: most of the coat is jet black (or solid, very even brown), the tan markings are just in the required places and have very crisp edges. This classic tanpoint pattern (at/at) is also found in Finnish Lapphunds. It has always been one of the most wanted patterns, and it has lost a part of its popularity to paler colors or patterns like wolf pattern, domino, and cream only very recently.

Black tanpoint Finnish Lapphund is mostly jet black, and the undercoat is either black or grey. Pale markings can be clearly told apart from the dark base color, and their shade varies from deep rusty red through different shades of tan and yellow to cream or even off-white. Pale shades of phaeomelanin are most common. Most kennel clubs don’t accept the term “tanpoint” (merkkivärinen), so these dogs are normally registered as black with points, black with markings (musta merkein) or black and [shade of phaeomelanin].

The size, shade, and sharpness of these “points” or markings vary a lot. If the points are very large, it can be difficult to tell the dog apart from a domino or a dark wolf patterned. If the points are very small or smutty, the dog can look solid black especially as young pup. Dogs with smallest points are normally genetically at/a; they have one tanpoint and one recessive black gene.

Variation in tanpoint pattern

Brown tanpoint (at/at b/b) is otherwise identical to black tanpoint, but all black pigment has been replaced by brown. Undercoat is brownish. These can be registered as brown with points, brown with markings or brown and [shade of phaeomelanin]. Blue tanpoints and lilac tanpoints exist too, and a kennel club color list might not include any suitable term for them.

Wolf pattern

A good number of all Finnish Lapphunds have not mostly solid black, solid brown or solid yellow coat, but their coats are nearly totally a mixture of darker and paler; they are “grizzled” or “agouti.” The tips of the hairs are dark, the bases are pale and often there are dark and pale bands in the hair shaft. These dogs look greyish or brownish. The color is never totally even all over a dog like this, but they have always darker back and sides and rather visible pale areas on cheeks, chest, lower legs and belly with more or less clear edges.

Sometimes a dog like this might look just like a black tanpoint at the first sight, but when you look closer, you'll notice the pale undercoat and at least faint circles around the eyes, “spectaculars.” Another wolf patterned dog can be so pale that it looks nearly like a sable, but the coat looks more grey than yellow, and most hairs have black tips or several colored bands.

All these different shades of wolf pattern are still versions of the same basic pattern. Genetically, the paler ones are often true (homozygous) wolf patterned (aw/aw), and darker ones are a combination of wolf pattern and tanpoint (aw/at). These two might be impossible to tell apart especially as pups.

Homozygous wolf patterned dog (aw/aw) has grizzled coat all over without solid black areas. There are clear pale spectacles around the eyes but no very visible pale spots over them. Cheeks, lower parts of the muzzle, chest, and lower legs are pale, but the pattern edges can be rather fuzzy. Tanpoints have a very crisp dark bar on the top of the muzzle, but wolf patterned have normally dark hairs also on the sides of the muzzle. When a dog is heterozygous for wolf pattern and tanpoint (aw/at), the result is on average darker than in homozygous wolf pattern, and something between these two patterns. There are normally both spectacles and pale spots over the eyes on the face, and the borders between dark and pale coat are crisper.

All the versions of wolf pattern can be told apart from true tanpoints (at/at) soon after birth by looking at the neck of the pup: Tanpoints have solid black neck and it stays like that, but wolf patterned have clearly brownish neck (and normally ears too) due to pale hair roots.

Suitable term for this pattern varies according to what the kennel club color list accepts. Wolf pattern (sudenvärinen) would be naturally the best name, but several other terms are in use. Some version of “wild pattern” or “game color” is common in many languages including Finnish and Swedish (riistanvärinen, viltfärg). Agouti is used too, as well as wolf sable or just plain “grey.”

Wolf patterned dogs

Darkest wolf patterned dogs are very dark, blackish grey dogs with solid dark muzzle. Their genotype is most often aw/a, one wolf pattern and one recessive black gene. These are genetically classified as wolf patterned too, but they are most often registered as “black with markings,” as they are so dark that they look more black than wolf colored when pups.

All these wolf pattern descriptions are meant for dogs with black eumelanin pigment. But brown-pigmented dogs can be wolf patterned as well, against a common belief among the fanciers of Lapponian breeds. Such a dog looks pale, grizzled brown but if you look closely, you’ll see the very same typical dark/pale combination of wolf pattern in its coat. Correct name for such a dog would be brown wolf patterned, but I don’t think that any kennel club accepts that. And naturally a dog can also be blue wolf patterned or lilac wolf patterned.

Brown, nlue and lilac wolf pattern


When the coat of a dog is mostly yellow or tan phaeomelanin, but there are some black hairs or hair tips at the base of the tail, withers and at the edges of the ears, the dog is genetically dominant yellow aka sable (Ay/–). Sable Finnish Lapphund pups are normally quite grey when they are born, because black-tipped hairs cover most of the coat and they can even have a dark muzzle. They might look a lot like adult pale wolf patterned dogs when just few weeks old. When they grow up, the dark-tipped hairs start getting sparser and they might sometimes disappear totally.

If there are just very little dark hairs left in the adult coat, the dog is a clear sable. Darker, more shaded dog can be called as shaded sable or mahogany sable. Heterozygous sables (Ay/aw, Ay/at, Ay/a) have on average more dark shading than homozygous sables (Ay/Ay). Most sable Finnish Lapphunds have rather sparse shading when compared for example to Tervuerens.

A sable dog has a black nose and at least partially black whiskers even when the coat is totally clear. But if a dog is genetically brown, nose, whiskers, and the dark shading on the coat are naturally brown and not black. Such a dog is a brown sable (Ay/– b/b). Blue sable (Ay/– d/d) and lilac sable (Ay/– b/b d/d) are also possible patterns.

In other breeds, sable dogs are often called as fawn, yellow, red, orange, or stag colored, but sable (soopeli) is the preferred term in Finnish Lapphunds as it is normally used in Finland when registering these dogs.

Sable dogs

Yellow and cream

If all of the dark eumelanin pigment is missing from the coat of a dog, only pale phaoemelanin is left and you get a dog, whose coat is some shade of tan or yellow. This pattern is called recessive yellow or non-extension yellow (or sometimes “e/e yellow”) in color genetics. Darkest version of this pattern can be seen on Irish Setters, which are deep mahogany red, and palest versions can give solid white dogs like Maltesers or Poodles. Pale shades of phaeomelanin are most common in Finnish Lapphunds, and so cream-colored coat is a typical result of the e/e gene pair.

A recessive yellow dog can look totally identical to a clear sable when adult, but as pups they are normally very easy to tell apart from each others: yellow pups are solid pale yellow or nearly white without any greyish shading at birth, and they don’t develop any black-tipped hairs later. Nose is always pink at birth, and although it can darken into black when a pup grows, it normally fades back into pinkish grey and can change color with seasons: paler during winter, darker during summer. Recessive yellow dogs are normally palest at birth, and they get a shade or two darker when they mature.

A newborn yellow pup can look even white when compared to its dark siblings, but the coat doesn't stay pure white in this breed. That’s why it is best not to register them as white, but more common term cream is far better. If they are born with darker shade or yellow, yellow or even tan can be used when registering them. Several other terms like wheaten, straw colored, and beige have been used, but it would be best to use just few basic terms, as it is not necessary to try to describe the exact shade of the coat of these recessive yellow dogs.

A yellow dog can be solid, evenly yellow or it can have clearly lighter coat areas on face and on lower parts of the body. There is often a pale vertical stripe on shoulder, too. This contrast between darker and lighter phaoemelanin is called countershading or urajiro (which is a Japanese term). Countershading is best visible on darker yellow or sable dogs, and it can be nearly impossible to see from pale creams, tanpoints or wolf patterned, although it is there. Countershading is not mentioned when a dog is registered.

Yellow dogs

Other coat patterns

The patterns that have now been described (solid black/brown, tanpoint, wolf pattern, sable and yellow) are the most common patterns in Finnish Lapphunds and they can be counted as kind of “basic patterns.” But there are some other, rarer patterns too. Some of these (domino, saddle pattern) are more or less independent patterns too, while some (brindle, mask) are extra patterns which can be combined with any other pattern. Some of these are accepted by the standard, some are not although they have been in the breed gene pool since the first true Lapponian dogs were registered.


The color term “domino” comes from the name of a domino patterned Afghan Hound born in 1950s, Tanjores Domino. This pattern has been known in Afghans and Salukis for a long time, but it was figured out just very recently that a certain pale grizzle-type pattern seen in Finnish Lapphunds and in Lapponian Herders is actually that very same domino! Dominos have been earlier registered as sables, wolf patterned, grizzles, or grey. The oldest photos of domino Finnish Lapphunds come from 1970s (for example Poromiehen Ponku X-30/74), so the pattern has been found from this breed since those days. The recessive gene responsible for this pattern is not yet known.

Domino patterned dog has normally dark upper parts and pale underparts. Dark back is rarely solid dark, but clearly grizzled. Pale coat areas are on average much larger than on tanpoints or wolf patterned, and a very pale domino can be even half dark, half pale. Undercoat is always very pale. The border between dark and light is normally very crisp on face, but fuzzier on other parts of the body. A rather typical domino facial pattern consists of just a dark forehead and a dark line along the top of the muzzle, and the rest of the face is pale. Another typical domino facial pattern looks like a tanpoint, but with much larger points. There is very often a pink vertical stripe with crisp edges in the middle of the nose. Points are on average paler than on non-dominos, sometimes so pale that they look more white than yellow or cream.

Domino pups resemble tanpoints with large points when born, and they show always very striking white or cream “eyebrows” over eyes. Sometimes they are born very pale, nearly solid yellow with just minor shading on back and turn darker only when they start growing up. But even then the facial pattern is typical for a domino. They have on average a little more white in the middle line of the face than non-dominos.

As the term domino is an accepted Afghan color term everywhere, it should be quite easy to get a permit to use it for Lapponian breeds too. It can be used in both Finland and Sweden nowadays. And like other patterns, you can also get brown dominos, blue dominos and lilac dominos and not just black-pigmented dogs.

Domino dogs

Saddle pattern

The most traditional German Shepherd or Finnish Hound pattern, saddle pattern, is also seen in Finnish Lapphunds. As young pups they normally look just like tanpoints, but when a pup grows, the points keep on getting bigger and bigger until just the back is dark and the legs and head are all yellow or tan. Finnish breed standard names this pattern as “unwanted.”

As saddle patterned dogs are hard to tell apart from tanpoints with just larger than average points when they are very young, it can be hard to get a saddle patterned dog registered with a term which properly described the pattern. If the term “saddle” (satula) or some version of it is available, that should be used. “Mantle” (mantteli) is another possible term for this pattern.

The genes behind saddle pattern are not fully figured out right now. One theory gives it its own A locus allele as, while another, more plausible theory says that it is just a version of tanpoint pattern (at/at). Anyway, it is fully dominant to classic tanpoint, fully recessive to sable, and partially codominant with wolf pattern.

Spectacles pattern

A solid black or brown dog that has large, very striking pale circles aka spectacles around its eyes is something you don’t normally see in other breeds than just Finnish Lapphund. All the other breeds with even some kind of specs either have nearly always other pale coat areas too, or have just a very small hint of specs. Most of the spectacled Finnish Lapphunds have at least some pale hair on paws too, but totally dark-pawed dogs can sometimes be seen as well. Sometimes pups have solid black coat and pale specs at the time they go to their new homes, but pale paws develop later.

The genetics behind this pattern is not yet fully known, but it is most likely caused by a combination of other genes instead of having a gene of its own. Some spectacled dogs with pale paws are quite clearly super dark wolf patterned with aw/a genotype. Some others with dark paws but at least partially pale undercoat are most likely seals, which are hiding wolf pattern (aw/– K/k).

This pattern doesn’t have an official name, and they can’t be registered as “spectacled.” It is also hard to tell a spectacled pup at young age. Most of them are solid dark until the age of few months and they develop the specs only later. And the ones which look like spectacled when young, most likely end up as darkish wolf patterned. These are normally registered just as “black” or “black with markings.” Brown spectacled dogs can be hard to recognize even when adult, because there isn't always enough contrast between brown coat and yellowish specs.

Spectacled dogs

Brindle stripes

Some Finnish Lapphunds don’t have pure tan/yellow areas in their coat, but they are covered with dark vertical striping. This striping is caused by the brindle gene (kbr), and this English word is also normally used when these dogs are registered. If the basic pattern is sable (Ay/– kbr/–), the result is a dog which has striping all over; it is “full brindle.” This pattern, the combination of sable and brindle, is not considered as an accepted pattern for this breed. Pups have often rather clear striping, but adults show a more patchy or just mixed grey-brown pattern due to long coat.

Because tanpoint and wolf pattern are much more common than sable in Finnish Lapphunds, most brindles are not full brindles but have these darker patterns as the basic pattern. These dogs show striping only in the pale points on paws, chest and face. The traditional Finnish name for these patterns is raitatassu, “striped paws.” When such a dog is registered, possible terms for them are “black with brindle points” or just “black brindle,” which is in use in some other breeds.

A striped dog can have just as well brown, blue or lilac eumelanin. As stripes are eumelanin, these brindles have naturally brown, blue or lilac striping on pale base color. They should be registered as “brown brindle” or “blue brindle,” if the kennel club accepts these terms.

Recessive yellow dogs don’t have eumelanin in their coats, so they can’t show any striping even if they were genetically brindles. Solid black or brown dogs, no matter if they are genetically dominant or recessive blacks, can’t show any striping either, as there are no phaeomelanin patches in their coats.

Full brindles and brindlepoints

Dark mask on muzzle

Mask is a kind of extra pattern, which doesn’t change the basic pattern or color of a dog; it just adds some extra eumelanin to the muzzle. Most Finnish Lapphunds and Lapponian Herders are totally maskless or have just very minimal mask and show just a little extra eumelanin close to the lips and under lower law. A medium sized mask can turn all of the muzzle dark. Still larger mask can turn all of the face black up to eyes and add some extra eumelanin to chest too, but this kind of mask is not seen in Lapponian breeds.

Young pups have very often a dark muzzle, but this “puppy mask” most often disappears when the pup grows. That’s why it is best not to register pups as “masked” unless you are totally sure, that the mask will still be there when they are adult. There is no reason to mention a very small mask when registering. Tanpoint and wolf patterned dogs have often so much eumelanin on their faces that a small mask wouldn’t even be visible. Just sables show the mask properly.

Black-pigmented dogs have a normal black mask. Brown-pigmented dogs have naturally a brown mask, blues have blue and lilacs have a lilac mask. Pale facial patterns are not called “mask” in this breed, because they are not caused by the mask gene Em.

Sable and wolf patterned dogs, which carry recessive black (genotypes Ay/a and aw/a) have often a very dark muzzle and they can look like they were masked, although they don’t have the true mask gene.


White spotting

Most Finnish Lapphunds and Lapponian Herders have at least a couple of white hairs on chest or toes. Slightly larger white markings like white paws or a “necktie,” a white stripe from lower jaw to chest, are also very common. There is no need to mention them when describing the color of the dog for registration papers. White starts to be important only when its amount is larger: it doesn’t stop at paws but creates socks, it can be seen on tail tip or muzzle and all of the chest is white, there might even be a collar. In this case, it is best to mention it in registration papers too.

It depends on the breed club which color terms are available. But a suitable scheme might be the following: If a black dog has less than 10% white in its coat, it is just “black.” If the amount of white is about 10–20%, it is “black with white markings.” When there is still more white, the dog is “black and white,” and if there is actually more white than color, the dog is “white and black.” Extreme white spotted dogs could be called “white with black markings.” All these might be available terms, but it might be totally impossible to use still longer combinations like “brown tanpoint with brindle points and white markings.” If no other options are available, white markings are either not mentioned or dogs with any shade of eumelanin, any shade of phaeomelanin and white are registered just as “tricolor.”

The Finnish Lapphund standard allows white up to the same amount as Lassie from the movies has: forelegs are white up to elbows and there are socks at back, tail tip is white, muzzle is white and there is a white stripe between the eyes, and there is a full white collar around the neck. The amount of white shouldn’t be more than 25% of the coat.

The Lapponian Herder standard accepts about the same amount of white, at least in theory, but on average they have less white than Finnish Lapphunds. Swedish Lapphunds have much less white than either of the Finnish breeds, so it might be best to mention even small chest spots when registering.

Dogs with lots of white especially on face can have blue or partially blue eyes, as it is linked to certain types of white spotting. The standard doesn’t accept this, but luckily it doesn’t harm the dog itself. In Finnish Lapphunds, all blue-eyed dogs have a wide white blaze on their face. Still more white on head, especially on ears too, is most likely linked to deafness but luckily this kind of spotting is very rare in Lapponian breeds. Anyway, dogs with lots of white on head shouldn't be bred to each others as the risk to get a pup with hearing problems is increased.

White coat areas are not always pure white, but they can be covered with small colored dots. This is called ticking. Ticks always show the “true” color under that white patch, and so a black tanpoint dog would have tan or yellow ticking on paws, chest, and the sides of its muzzle, but black ticking on other body areas. Sparse ticking is rather common in Lapponian breeds. Sometimes dogs with denser ticking are born, and their white spots might turn into more colored than white. Ticking isn’t visible when a pup is born, but it starts to appear at the age of few weeks and the ticking keeps on getting denser for months, sometimes even for years.

White markings and different versions of white spotting

A short list of the most important color genes:

A locus decides the ratio of eumelanin and phaeomelanin. More dominant alleles allow less eumelanin than the more recessive alleles.
Ay sable
aw wolf pattern
at tanpoint
a recessive black

B locus decides if eumelanin is black or brown.
B normal (black) eumelanin
b brown eumelanin

C locus is supposed to have some of the alleles which affect the shade of phaeomelanin (but this is not yet proven in dogs), and the lowest alleles of this locus give different types of albinism. No type of albinism has this far been seen in Lapponian breeds.

D locus decides if eumelanin is black or slate grey.
D normal (black) eumelanin
d blue (slate grey) eumelanin, slightly faded phaeomelanin

E locus decides the ratio of eumelanin and phaeomelanin, too. More dominant alleles allow more eumelanin than more recessive ones.
Em mask
E normal amount of eumelanin
e recessive yellow, no eumelanin in coat

K locus also decides the ratio of eumelanin and phaeomelanin. More dominant alleles allow more eumelanin than more recessive ones.
K dominant black
kbr brindle
k normal amount of eumelanin

S locus decides how much white there is. The content of this locus is not yet officially known, and there might be more than just one locus.
S solid
si irish spotting, “Lassie pattern”
sp piebald
sw extreme white spotting, over 90% of white

T locus decides if white coat areas are clear or ticked.
T ticking, spotting, roan
t pure white patches